Wines made from the same variety
Mtsvane is a widely known name among the white-grained vine types of Georgia. For example: in regions of Kakheti it is known as Mtsvane and Nabada Mtsvane; in Kartli as Goruli Mtsvane, Jishiani Mtsvane and Lurji Mtsvane; in Meskheti- Saparis Mtsvane; in Imereti- Okribuli Mtsvane; in Racha- Mtsvane; in Guria and Adjara- Mtsvane and Mtsvana; and in Shavshet- Klarjeti-Mtsvanura.
As is clear, Mtsvane is spread in almost every region of Georgia, but the mentioned varieties, with their morphological and agricultural features, are sharply different, and because of this Georgian viticulturists named each of them according to their area of growth: Kakhuri Mtsvane, Saparis Mtsvane, Okribuli Mtsvane, Rachuli Mtsvane etc. It must be mentioned that it is justifiably named Mtsvane (Green), as it indicates the color of the berry which, during full ripeness and especially in shady places, takes on a dark or light green color.
In particular, among the vine species of Kartli Gorula Mtsvane, has been recognized since ancient times as a vine type giving high qualitative production and, because of this, it is justifiably considered to be the main standard type of this region.
In viticulture literature, and also in other regions of Kartli, it is known by following additional names: Mtsvane, Suramula, Tetrpotola, Jishiani Mstavne and Lurji Mtsvane.
Observation confirmed that this type was called Tetrpotola because of the white down, which is well depicted on the undersides of the leaves and young sprouts. In order to distinguish this type from low-productive and thin-bunched varieties of Mstvane, it was named Jishiani Mstavne. The name Lurji Mstvane was given in respect of dark blue color of the berries and leaves during full ripening, especially in shady locations.
In some areas of Georgia, Gorula Mtsvane is known by different names. For example: in Khashuri region and upper I mereti it is widely known as Kviskheturi. It is indubitable that Gorula Mtsvane was spread in Imereti from Kvishkheti.
In the neighborhood of Surami and Khashuri, Mtsvane is also known as Surmula, and, in Racha, it is known as Tbiluri. According to local observation and legend, it is confirmed that this type was brought to Racha by Rachan vine-growers, who were working in the gardens and kitchen gardens of Tbilisi and its suburbs, from where this type was taken.
There are no written materials referring to the origin and spread of Gorula. Very few notes with short characterizations of the variety are presented in the works of I. Kandulov, V. Gegevski, G. Shareri and acad Iv. Javakhishvili. These authors only mention this variety by the name Mtsvane and refer to it as a vine variety giving high qualitative production- given first place among the vine varieties of Kartli.
Relatively more detail is given in the work of S. Cholokhashvili who places Gorula in the group of endemic vine types of Kartli, gives a short botanical description and indicates its main agricultural features.
An extensive monograph of Gorula Mtsvane is shown in the second volume of the Union ampelography, described by Dr. N. Chakhnashvili, whereby the variety’s botanical, agro-biological and agro-technical characteristics are given.
Before the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera, Mtsvane was spread as wide masses across the territory of Kartli and especially in its central regions. Vines were cultivated on their own roots and were formed on lowlands by Georgian rule, on one or two fruiting and spur canes.
As is confirmed by legend, the production of Gorula Mtsvane is intended for the making of qualitative table white wines. Its grape is mixed with Chinuri during the pressing out and the mixture of these two types is fermented with pomace. As a result, the historically known Khidistauri red wine was made, which merited great attention for its taste features.
As a result of fungal diseases and phylloxera, the cultivation area of Gorula Mtsvane was significantly reduced but, after the transition to grafts, it was renewed and wide spread, especially in the regions of central Kartli.
According to the observation materials of 1953, the area of Gorula Mtsvane is distributed in the following ways. (See Table 1).
According to the data of the same year, the total area of Gorula Mtsvane in the Meskheti region was 2.92 ha; from this, 2.63 ha is cultivated in Akhaltsikhe district; 0.26 ha in Aspindza; and in Adigheni- 0,03 hectares.
Gorula Mstavne is also cultivated in districts of Kakheti, Imereti and Racha. Below is presented the distribution area in hectares of these regions. (See Table 2).
So, the total area of Gorula Mtsvane including Kvishkhuri in Georgia by 1953, was 800.18 hectares. Of this area, Gorula occupies 600.98 hectares and Kvishkhuri -200 hectares.
Goruli Mstvane was described in the village of Tsedisi in Gori region. This village is located south-west of Gori in the gorge of Tsedisura, on a plot that curves to the south. Vines there are engrafted on 3309 of RiperiaXRupestri and are formed on lowlands by Georgian rule. For comparison, this type was also described in the collective plot of the testing station of Dighomi. Vines are cultivated there on lowlands and are engrafted on 5 bb of RiperiaXRupestri and are formed following Georgian rule.
The young shoot. Young sprouts, during the period of bud expansion, are covered with web-like down and have an intensive pinkish color. The cone of growth with still un- expanded leaves is covered with web-like white hair-like down and the tips have a slight pinkish hue. First newly expanded top leaves are covered on both sides by white web-like down and have a slight pinkish hue, especially on the undersides between veins. The following second and third leaves are characterized by light down on the top sides but on undersides are covered with web-like down, which has a pinkish hue to the margins. In most cases, the second and sometimes third leaves are characterized on the top sides by a bronze color. The down on the next leaves on the top side gradually reduces and, often, the down only remains along the veins as oblong hairs. The petiole of young leaves is totally covered with whitish-gray hair like down and has a reddish color.
The young sprout is rounded, to the basis it is significantly covered with whitish-gray hair-like down which intensifies to the tip of the sprout. The moustaches and inflorescence are characterized by intensive down.
The one-year sprout. Grown shoots are thick (8 – 10.5 mm) and, during the period of full ripening, they take on a light brown or brownish color. They are characterized by brownish threads along their length. Occasionally, the shoot is covered with thin hair-like down. The axils are a darker color and the length between axils is 7 - 16.5cm.
The leaf. Mature leaves are dark green and are larger than average at 13.5 – 20.6cm in length and 13 – 19.4cm in width. They have an almost rounded shape or slightly wide-oval and are deeply lobed. Secondary lobes are characteristic.
The incision of the leaf’s petiole is open lyre-like, with rounded or acute basis. Arrow-like and deep arch-like square shaped incisions can also be found. It is rarely elliptical with closed lobes On the bases of incisions, in some cases, one simple tooth is developed.
Upper incisions are quite cut and are often closed with wide elliptical or egg-like holes; sometimes being narrowing elliptical. Lyre-like incisions with parallel or closed sides, with acute or pointed basis, can also be found.
Lower incisions are quite cut, sometimes similar to upper incisions and creating a deeply intruded angle. They have a lyre-like shape, with acute basis and sides which are almost parallel. Secondary lobes are often slightly or quite cut and sometimes insignificantly intruded, rarely lyre-like with closed lobes and acute basis. The teeth of lobe tips are triangular with rounded tips or triangular with convex sides with acute or sometimes rounded tips. Secondary teeth are minor in comparison with the main teeth and in shape are more often like right-angle triangles, with acute or rounded tips. In rare cases teeth are triangular with saw-like teeth, convex on one side and with a curled tip.
The surface of the leaf is like a large balloon, sometimes smooth. In natural conditions it is like a wide funnel. Its sides are often curled and the petiole incisions of the lobes are slightly upraised. The topsides of leaves are bare and on the undersides are covered with white grayish hair-like down.
The ratio of leaf petioles to middle main vessel is 0.7 - 0.9; it is bare or insignificantly covered in down. It is a light green color with a slight yellowish hue. On the sun-lit side it is characterized by a pinkish hue.
The flower. Flowers are hermaphroditic, with normally developed stamens and pistil. Stamens are almost equal to the length of the pistil or are slightly longer. There are often 5 stamens in a flower. We also see 4 or 6 and rarely 7 stamens. The ovary is oblong and has a pear-like shape. The number of flowers in an inflorescence reaches 350 - 450.
The bunch. The length of the bunch’s pedicel is 3.5 – 5.5 cm. By the time of full grape-ripening, it becomes rough up to the axils and takes on a light brownish hue characteristic to the shoot. Often, the pedicel creates a right angle in the zone of the axils, which must be considered a characteristic feature of the variety.
The shape of bunch is wide cone-like, winged and sometimes so developed that the bunch loses its shape. In rare cases it is cylindrical-cone-like. Bunches are thin or quite dense and have an average length of 16 - 19cm and width of 12.5 - 14.5cm. The length of a large bunch is 25cm and width 16cm.
The grain. The length of a grain’s pedicel, with receptacle, is 4 - 6mm. The pedicel is brown and the receptacle is wrinkled and wide cone-like. The berry is quite strongly attached to the receptacle.
On plains which are abundantly lit by the sun and especially on the sunny side, fully-ripened berries take on a yellowish-green color with a slightly pinkish hue. They develop thin points of dark color and burn-like spots on the skin. In shady vineyard areas, the berry remains a dark green color and appears immature. Grains are averagely large at 12 - 19mm in length and 11.5 – 14.5mm in width; are rounded or wide-oval, sometimes oval shaped; are wider in the middle of the body, and have rounded ends or are symmetrical. The skin of berry is quite thick and rough. The flesh is quite dense and fleshy, normally sweet and at the same time sharp.
The seed. There are 1-4 seed in a grain; most commonly one or two, rarely 3 - 4. The average length of a seed is 6.5 - 7mm and width 4.5 - 5mm. Seeds are light brown and yellowish-green in the clefts on the abdominal side. Clefts are well depicted, and are located up from the middle of the body on the rear side. Seeds are rounded or slightly oval and quite depicted. The tips are a rusty-brown color and in length reach 2mm.
Phonological observation of the course of biological phases was held in the vine collection of the testing farm of Dighomi in Tsedisi village, and on the testing base of Khidistavi (Gori region).
Below on table 3 is shown data of 1951, 1952 and 1958 regarding the course of biological phases.
The observation indicates that in the vineyards of Tsedisi, the awakening of Gorula Mstvane is late by some days in comparison with that of the zone of Khidistavi. This is natural due to the mentioned village being located in a frontal mountain zone, and, as a result, being actively impacted by temperature. Almost the same difference can be found in the course of following biological phases; i.e. that of full grape-ripening which, in Tsedisi, is late by some days. However, the difference between the lengths of vegetation periods is insignificant. For example, in the zones of Khidistavi and Tsedisi, the total length of the vegetation period from bud breaking to the end of leaf-fall is 213 days. In some years, in Gori region and particularly in the gorge of Ateni, as a result of early frosts in autumn, leaves fall before the harvest. In such conditions, the grape does not achieve normal ripening, significantly lowering the quality of the wine made from it. According to the data of three years, the vines in the viticulture zone of Dighomi begins bud break from 20 - 22 April, later by two or three days than in Khidistavi. Yet, if the warmth is increased, the course of biological phases is hastened and the grape reaches full ripeness by the 5 - 6 October.
Phonological observation on phases of biological development was held in 1940 by Dr. N. Chakhnashvili in the village Khidistavi (Gori region), in the vineyards of Staliniri village of the Staliniri region and Ksovrisi village of the Mtskheta region. (See Table 4).
As Table 4 indicates, there is insignificant difference between the beginning and ending of some biological phases. As a rule, mass flowering begins from the beginning of June, and full ripeness occurs in the middle of October.
In order to compare, below is presented the data of phonological observations of Gorula Mtsvane, which were held on the bases of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in conditions of Kakheti (see Table 5).
As Table 5 indicates, in conditions of Kakheti, the development of Gorula is late, but if the temperature is higher, the course of biological phases is hastened, which results in the early maturity of the grape. In the conditions of Kakheti, the grape achieves mass-ripening by the end of October.
Growth of vine and productivity. In conditions of Kartli, Gorula Mstvane is characterized by average growth. In conditions of special care and in deep, strong soil conditions, it achieves strong growth-development. This type, in Kakheti, on the base of the testing station of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, is characterized by almost identical development. By the end of the vegetation period, the shoots reach 1.5 - 2m in length and by the time of full grape-ripeness, manage maturity up to 85% and- by the time of leaf-fall; full ripeness. By this time, the shoot takes on the typical hue of the variety.
In conditions of proper care, Gorula Mtsvane gives the first sign of harvest in its third year from planting and a full yield from the fourth or fifth years.
The vine is characterized by average productivity. Productive sprouts make up 80% and sometimes 90%. Sprouts developing from old parts of the vine are unproductive.
On one shoot, one bunch develops; sometimes two, but in such a case bunches are unevenly developed. The coefficient of productivity reaches 1.15 - 1.2 m. The harvest from one vine in the case of loading with 8 - 10 buds, in the conditions of Khidistavi village (Gori region) reaches 1.5 - 2.0kg and the harvest from one hectare (in case of the existence of 400 - 500 vines) reaches 80 centners per hectare.
According to an observation held on the testing base of Telavi in the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, the coefficient of productivity does not exceed 1.48. The average weight of a bunch varies from 116 to 130g. and the average yield from one vine (in the case of loading with 8 - 10 buds) reaches 120g.
Gorula Mstvane is characterized by flower-fall and thin bunches, especially in unsuitable weather. According to S. Cholokhashvili and N. Chakhnashvili, this type is characterized by self-pollination which, according to said authors, results in defected stamens. In artificially created feeding areas, the berry ripens later than Aligote and Rkhastiteli.
Observation confirms that flower-fall significantly reduces in the case of pruning, especially if such is carried out at the beginning of flowering.
Durability against pests and fungal diseases. Observation proves that Goruli Mtsvane is sensitive to mildew and expresses this feature in almost every ecological condition. In order to combat this weakness, an injection with Bordeaux mixture four or five times during the vegetation period must be considered as an obligatory rule. This variety is relatively durable against ash. In some cases, Gorula Mtsvane, in some regions of Kartli, is not treated with sulphur, but the vine often remains healthy. However, an injection of sulphur at the time of flowering and grain-development must be considered a reasonable measure as sulphur at the time of flowering better supports the flowering of the vine.
Response of species to different environmental conditions. The soil condition and exposition of the vineyard has a large influence on the productivity and quality of Gorula Mtsvane. In plain and deep soils, it is characterized by strong growth and abundant productivity, but in such conditions the quality of production is relatively low.
Few sources have been found regarding its resistance to drought in Tbilisi and its suburb zones (Dighomi-Tsulauri, the zones of the river Veriskhevi of Tbilisi, Ortachala and Didube). According to observation, in the mentioned micro-districts, the growth of Gorula is not much hindered, but develops relatively small bunches. In soils which are south and south-east-facing and are rich in calcium-carbonates, Gorula gives high quality production with 23 - 24% of sugar consistency. So, in order to cultivate high qualitative wine material, its next spread in Kartli must take place on soils of the above-mentioned exposition and type.
Its resistance to drought has not yet been thoroughly studied, moreover in almost every region of Kartli where Gorula is cultivated, the vineyards produce rough and thick-skinned thin grapes.
Gorula quite well endures winter frosts, especially if the green masse of the vine is well ripened. On expositions which slope to the south and south-east, and in high places, it endures frosts up to 14 - 18°, resulting in no damage to the buds. Moreover, in the case of frosts, its buds and shoots are massively damaged. In particular, the action of winter frosts is well expressed on the first terrace of river gorges. During the winter of 1948-49, as a result of frosts in the gouge of Tana, Gorula Mstvane demonstrated more durability than other local types; for example, whereas one-year shoots of Chinuri were massively damaged as a result of frosts, in the same plots only a minor number of buds of Gorula were damaged.
From specific agro-technical methods, the pruning and the conducting of green operations must be mentioned. It is confirmed by observation that Gorula Mtsvane easily becomes accustomed to long, short and average pruning. Accordingly to vine strength, it is possible to load up to 30 buds.
It is a necessary measure to break off the tips of the sprout in order to develop the shoot at the time of flowering; this supports better blossoming and significantly increases the grape harvest.
With its morphological and agricultural features, Gorula Mtsvane belongs to the group of qualitative wine types and, among the indigenous vine types of Kartli, it takes 1st place.
Below is shown the average data of the chemical analysis of the Gorula grape. Materials for analysis were taken from the plots of the villages Tskdisi and Khidistavi, and from the testing farm of Dighomi in 1951, 1952 and 1953. (See Table 6).
The weight of a large bunch is 240g and weight of small bunch 72g, while the average weight varies from 126 to 196.5g. The number of berries on an average bunch varies from 66 to 67 and on a large bunch can reach 170.
In average bunch consists of: grain- 96 – 96.5%, skin- 16.5 - 17.1%; seed 3.19 - 3.20% and the outlet of juice is 76.8 – 77.2%. Such an outlet of juice results in the satisfying of the demands of a wine type.
The weight of 100 berries varies from 172 to 186 and in those 100 berries there are 165 - 175 seeds. The weight of 100 seeds reaches 6.5 - 6.8 g. The amount of berries containing one seed is 75%, two seeds- 20%, three seeds- 4% and four seeds- 1%. The samples of grape taken from identical vineyards, give following picture after the chemical analysis of the flesh (see Table 7).
As the table indicates, the total ratio of sugar and acidity in flesh can be considered normal for the making of slightly sour yet cheerful table white wines. The production of Gorula in Kakheti on the testing base of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology of Telavi is characterized by relatively reduced acidity, which can indubitably be explained by the peculiarity of ecological conditions. To confirm this, below are presented the results of the analysis taken from the afore-mentioned testing station. (See Table 8).
In order to determine the quality of champagne wine material and table wine made from Gorula Mstvane, a chemical analysis of the wine material of 1952 was conducted. The results of said analysis are shown below (see Table 9).
As the results indicate, the first sample of Gorula Mstvane, in chemical structure, represented typical table wine, as it is characterized by a normal percentage consistency of elements which are characteristic to qualitative table wine. For example, it consists of 11.8% alcohol and a total acidity of 8.9%. The wine is characterized by body, which is confirmed by the amount of extracts (24.70). It took the following estimation after tasting: light straw-colored, soft, harmonic, pleasant taste features characteristic to European table wines.
The second sample, with its consistency, satisfies the demands of champagne wine material and for this purpose can be successfully used, but there is a lack of pure plantations- its production is often admixed with Chinuri and the resulting material is productively used for making Georgian champagne wine.
The production of Gorula Mtsvane, in the view of wine-making, was studied also by Professor G. Bedirdze who studied the chemical nature of the wine and researched the taste features of wine materials taken from the main micro-districts of Kartli and some vineyards of Meskheti.
Below are shown the results of that analysis (see Table 10).
In the main viticulture districts of Kartli, as is shown in the results of the analysis, the wine of Gorula Mtsvane is considered energetic. For example, wines of Gorula Mtsvane from Mkejvriskhevi, Khidistavi, Vaziani, and Mchadistavi give the wide opportunity of creating table wine of a new mark. In the production of champagne among the districts of Kartli, Gori district takes first place with its micro-districts: Mejviskhevi, Khidistavi, and Ateni. Second place is taken by Kaspi and its micro-districts: Khandaki, Upper Khandaki, Kvemochala, and Kodisstkharo. In the mentioned places, among champagne vine types, Gorula Mstvane takes honorable place as giving admixture material for making qualitative champagne wine. Champagne samples made from Gorula Mtsvane received high estimation at the Degustation Commission session which was held in January 1951. In a 10 point system, every sample was awarded 9 – 9.3 points. It must be mentioned that the mixture of Gorula Mtsvane and Chinuri appeared relatively higher qualitative than champagne made from each type alone, which must be taken into cosideration while making Georgian champagne.
Observation of the storage ability of Gorula Mstvane does not exist, as, in production, it was made as an admixture, yet its organoleptical features indicate a good storage potential of and transportability. From appropriate materials it was discovered that an old landlord of Kartli, Bagration-Mukhraneli, mainly made wine from Gorula Mtsvane on his land and this wine was famous outside Russia, which received high estimation many times and was also rewarded at expositions of Paris and Novgorod as a grape- with its organoleptical features - useful for making wine. It is not valuable as a table grape, as the berries are characterized by thick, rough and slight bitterness.
The Gorula grape is not stored for winter. Gorula Mtsvane is characterized by several varieties, from which Mukha Mstvane must be mentioned. According to the observations of Dr. N. Chakhnashvili, this variation- in comparison with Gorula Mtsvane- is characterized by less growth, thin berry and total productivity less than that of Gorula. Due to this, it cannot be considered as a prospective variation.
GENERAL EVALUATION AND DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT
For the central districts of Kartli, Gorula Mtsvane is the main variety. In the mentioned area, its production presently and in the future must be used for making European type table wine and in some regions it can be successfully used as admixture material for making qualitative champagne wine. So, in central regions of Kartli the prospective development of viticulture must be based on the spread of Gorula Mstvane as specially selected phylloxera-resistant grafts.
This type must be widely spread in the main districts of Kartli; in every micro-district, where viticulture is the lead industry. At the same time, the place of manufacture must be taken by this variety, which will guarantee the population with a qualitative production of grape for the making of table wines and champagne.
As observation confirms, Gorula Mtsvane can be successfully cultivated in Meskheti, especially in the districts of Akhaltsikhe and Aspindza, also in the districts of central and upper Imereti. In the mentioned regions, this vine variety is characterized by good growth-development and high quality. It is necessary to pay careful attention to the selection of reproductive bud materials. It is confirmed that in productive plantations of Gorula Mstvane, Tsrukvavila and low productive variations exist, which are known as Avpekhi and other names. While selecting bud materials, these conditions must be taken into consideration and, for reproduction, the material of Gorula Mtsvane must be taken from selected and high qualitative vines.
Wines made from the same variety