Wines made from the same variety
Dzelshavi is a native widely distributed grapevine variety, provid¬ing quite good material for Soviet champagne and moderate qual¬ity table pink wine.
In special literature sources and among local viticulturists, Dzelsha¬vi is known also by the names Dzvelshavi and Obchuri Dzelsha¬vi. There are quite independent grapevine varieties known by the names ‘’Local Dzvelshavi’’ and ‘’Dzelshavi of Sachkhere,’’ culti¬vated in the north-eastern part of upper Imereti (Sachkhere district).
Dzelshavi is a local grapevine variety of Western Georgia, origi¬nating from the grapevine family of Kolkheti. With its morpho¬logical and agricultural features, it is close to the grapevine vari¬eties of Imereti and, together with them, belongs to the eco-geo¬graphical group Prol. Pontica subprol. Georgica Negr. Presently, this grapevine variety is distributed in central and upper Imereti. Based on linguistic analysis, acad. Iv. Javakhishvili (8) considers Dzelshavi as one of the ancient grapevine varieties of Georgia. According to him, in the far-distant past, circa 5th century (A.D), the word ‘’Dzeli’’ meant standing (living) tree, while the second part of the word ‘’Shavi’’ expressed the brownish coloring of the vine’s one year sprouts. Then ‘’Dzeli’’ charged its meaning to ‘’log’’ (cut tree) and is used nowadays in this connotation.
Therefore, the name Dzelshavi’ is named so to signify and express the coloring of the one year sprouts, as, for example, it is in the case of Rkatsiteli which means ‘’reddish colored sprout’’.
There is no accurate information regarding the location of its ori¬gin. By the morphological and agricultural characteristics, as well as by the area of its distribution, Dzelshavi is a grapevine variety of Imereti, because- as much in the past and as presently -it is cultivated only in Imereti.
According to 1940 data (the Union Description), Dzelshavi has been found in nearly all regions of Georgia; the scope of Obchuri Dzelshavi and Local Dzelshavi are shown together but, as they are independent grapevine varieties, can be separated from each other in scope. Obchuri Dzelshavi is distributed in probably all districts of Imereti excluding Chiatura and Sachkhere, while Lo¬cal Dzelshavi, or Dzelshavi of Sachkhere are mostly cultivated in Chiatura and Sachkhere; in Kartli – in the districts of Kareli and Khashuri; while in Racha-Lechkhumi both varieties can similarly be found.
Below is presented the 1940 research data about the distribution of Dzelshavi in Georgia (see Table 1).
As Table 1 indicates, the vineyards of Dzelshavi totalled 970.0 ha land-scope, out of which 460 ha is dedicated to Obchuri Dzelshavi and 510.0 ha to Local Dzelshavi. According to 1957 data, Dzelshavi was cultivated on 852 hectare: 604 ha – in Imereti, 110 ha – in Kartli, 129.5 ha in other districts: in Guria (3.80), in South Ossetia (4) and 1 ha – in Kakheti. The largest scope today is dedicated to Dzelshavi in Maiakovski, Vani, Zestafoni, Kutaisi and Ordjonikidze districts. Local Dzelshavi is cultivated mostly in the districts of Sachkhere, Chiatura, Tsageri, Ambrolauri, Khashuri and Kareli.
Dzelshavi was described on the collective farm, in the village of Obcha (Zestafoni district) and explored more thoroughly in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology. This vineyard is cultivated on the slightly inclined slope of the Tsiv-Gombori Mountain, at 562.3m above sea level, formed by Georgian rule, by using stake-wire, at two-neki on two opposite hangers. Vines are 20 years old, grafted on Rupestri Dulo.
The young shoot. The young shoot is 15 - 20cm long; its crown and first flowers are covered with a thick web-like coating on both sides which is grayish-white, around the crown and leaves being pinkish. Leaves of the second row (3-4) lose the coating on the topside and take on a yellowish green, slightly orange coloring. Underside leaves are less coated and are a whitish grey.
The one year sprout. The one year sprouts are bright purple. The axils are darker than the space between them which is from 6 to 12cm long, generally 8-10cm. The lines across the space between the axils are lightly expressed.
The leaf. The leaves of the middle row (9 - 12) are quite large, from 16 to 22cm long and 15 - 20cm wide, with the average size being 18x16cm. The leaf is oval, rarely, it can also be round. The leaf is mostly three or rarely five-lobed. The middle margin of the leaf is frontally protruded and similar to an acute triangular. The surface of the leaf is wrinkled like a net, rarely covered with large blisters. The shape of the leaf is uneven.
The upper incisions are deep, often half the length of the ma¬jor vein. Most frequently the incisions are closed and elliptical or have an egg-like eye. Open incisions can rarely be found too, which are similar to a gap or lyre with parallel sides; usually, inci¬sions can be found which are lyre-shaped or with roundish basis. Rarely the basis has one tooth.
The lower incisions are superficial, generally less-developed and open. With the shape of a lyre or rarely incised angular. The basis of incisions is mostly sharp.
The incision of the petiole is often lyre-like or like an arch with an acute roundish basis; rarely, incisions like an arrow can be found. Most commonly, the incision of the petiole is open, rarely being closed or having a wing.
The underside of the leaf is covered with quite thick web-like down and thick bumps, which together create quite a heavy thick felt-like coating.
The margins of the leaf have triangular teeth. The major veins end with thick, projected triangular teeth. The lateral veins are followed by saw-like teeth. The lateral teeth are not equal, but a variation of large and small teeth.
The petiole of the leaf is ¼ the length of the major vein. This is covered with thin risen bumps and is colored a bright wine-color¬ing. Generally, the petiole and the blade are flat.
The flower. As a rule, the flower is hermaphroditic, consisting of five or rarely six stamens; the proportion of stamens’ length to the height of the pistil is 1.25, rarely 1.50cm. The knot is roundish, with well-depicted column and nose.
The bunch. Bunches are larger than middle-sized, from 12 to 20 cm long and 8 - 16cm wide, with the average size being 15 x 9cm, while the size of distinctly large bunches is 20 x 12cm. The bunch is wide cone-shaped, often branched, rarely there are also cone-cylin¬drical bunches which are slightly dense or quite dense. The pedicel of the bunch is short, about 2 - 3cm long, rarely being 4 - 5cm long. The pedicel is grass-like, becoming woody towards the pedicel of the sprout and taking on its coloring. It is 6-8cm long, colored with green and ended with wide-cone shape receptacle. The pedicel, with its receptacle, is covered with a brown rough coating.
The grain. The berry is middle sized or larger, from 1.6 to 2.0cm long and 1.5 - 1.9cm wide. Middle-sized berries are 1.7 x 1.6cm in size, while large berries are 2.0 x 1.9cm. Grains are roundish, rarely concaved. Grains are not distributed equally on a bunch and there can be, in some cases, a num¬ber of small berries. The skin of berries is rough and easily separated from the flesh. The flesh is juicy, uncolored, sweet, and with an unidentifiable original aroma. The berry is dark red, almost black, and covered with thick wax-like spots that give it a violet coloring.
The seed. There are one or two seeds in a grain, rarely, three. The seed is about 6.0 - 6.5mm long and 4.0 - 5.0mm wide, is bright brown; to the tip and inside veins becoming bright yellowish. The basis is placed in the upper part of the seed; is oval, protruded, slightly concaved, or right on the surface. The basis is circular with a chan¬nel that is well expressed. The abdomen side is slightly bumpy with superficial, parallel veins across it. The tip is 1.5mm long, nearly cy¬lindrical and covered with a thin, unnoticeably rugged surface.
Vegetation period and course of its phases. The vegetation period and course of phases were described in Sakare testing station – in Zestafoni, in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – in Telavi and in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture of Ukraine in Odessa.
In central Imereti (in the districts of Maiakovski, Terjola, and Zestafoni), Dzelshavi starts the break of buds in the first half of April, while the full ripening from the second half or end of September. In Kakheti, the break of buds begins from the third part of April, while the full ripening from the end of September; while in Ukraine, the third part of April and the middle of September respectively. The data of observations in Imereti, Kakheti and south Ukraine is presented below (see Table 2).
As Table 2 indicates, the vegetation period of Dzelshavi varies significantly. In Imereti, it requires 168 days to reach full ripening, with the sum of active temperatures being 3477o. In Ukraine, where the vegetation period is short, 146 days is required in the approach to the full ripening period, with the sum of active temperatures being 3077o. In Kakheti it needs 162 days and 3174o in order to achieve the full ripening period. Such a wide variety of vegetation periods is determined by climate and air conditions. In the relatively cooler Ukraine, vegetation starts 12 days later, forcing satisfaction and an annual end to it before the occurrence of 10o temperature. There is also less sediment in Ukraine that causes the yearly ripening of Dzelshavi. In Imereti, it does not make use of all resources (warmth and sediments) for vegetation that last until the end of October. According to this data, Dzelshavi belongs to the grapevine varieties of the third period of ripening and can be freely recommended for cultivation in cooler districts than Imereti.
One year sprouts of Dzelshavi can reach full ripening by the time of grape-ripening as much in Imereti and Kakheti as in Ukraine.
Dzelshavi is characterized by strong growth. Observations in collective vineyards characterized with different climate and soil conditions, show the strength of the growth of Dzelshavi is comparatively higher than that of other local grapevine varieties.
The productivity. As with many other local grapevine varieties, Dzelshavi gives first and full productivity early. The grafts of Dzelshavi gives first signs of productivity from the first year, while full ripening from the third and fourth years. In comparison with local grapevine varieties of Imereti, Dzelshavi is far more productive, depending on climate and soil conditions, on the feeding area dedicated to it, and on cultivation and forming. As for example, in Maiakovski, on forest soils, (in the village of Fersati), where vines are formed by common method – at 2 - 3 hangers, with a 2.25-2.86m2 feeding area, the productivity of Dzelhsavi is about 80 - 100 centners per hectare; in forest, strong carbonate soils (such as those of the village of Obcha) 150 centners or more can be provided; while in podsolic-poor soils – 50 centners per hectare or less. In other districts (in Zestafoni and Terjola), it is more productive than local grapevine varieties by giving 80 - 100 centners per hectare and more. In Kakheti – as was indicated in the collection vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture, the productivity of Dzelshavi is defined as 2.0 - 2.5kg per vine, meaning 70 - 80 centners per hectare. In Ukraine, based on observations conducted in Odessa, the productivity of Dzelshavi in different years is from 2.0 to 2.6kg per vine. According to the productivity characteristics shown in Imereti and Kakheti, Dzelshavi should be classified as quite highly productive. The number of productive sprouts varies from 85% to 90%; sprouts with one bunch consist of 57.3%; with two bunches – 40.7%, and with three bunches – 2.0%. The coefficient of productivity is from 1.0 to 1.2 in Imereti, and from 1.2 to 1.4 in Kakheti. The average weight of a bunch is 120 - 200g in Kakheti, 100 - 225 in Imereti, and 200g in Ukraine. Some especially large bunches weigh 500g. Therefore, Dzelshavi is characterized with comparatively higher productivity than other local grapevine varieties, as much in Imereti as in Kakheti and Ukraine.
Resistance to fungal diseases and pests and its response to environmental changes. The resistance to fungal diseases is a very important characteristic of grapevine varieties for the adaptation to the climate conditions of Imereti. Dzelshavi is quite strong against downy mildew but very vulnerable to powdery mildew, creating the necessity of additional spraying in rainy years. In plain and lowland damp areas, the berry of Dzelshavi is very sensitive to rot, especially in rainy weather that is also fostered by the thinness of the skin and density of the bunch. Dzelshavi also becomes damaged due to different pests, particularly the worm. It is not enduring of winter frosts, however as Imereti is not characterized with significant cold, so influence from frost is inconsequential. Dzelshavi is well-adapted to rootstocks of the majority of grapevine varieties of Imereti, but shows better results when grafted to Rupestri Dulo, while for lime soils Berlandieri X Riparia hybrids 5bb and 420a should be selected.
With its appearance, mechanical and chemical structure of bunches and juice, Dzelhshavi represents a grapevine variety that is mostly dedicated to the wine industry. The character of its wine includes lightness, tenderness, and cheerfulness while its light coloring indicates its value for champagne. Indeed, as much in the past as presently, Dzelshavi is mostly used for making champagne.
Mechanical structure of the grape. To characterize the mechanical structure of the grape, below are given the results of the analysis conducted in Sakare testing station by V. Demetradze and Vl. Kintsurashvili (see Table 3).
As Table 3 indicates, in laboratorial conditions the outcome of juice is quite large, at about 80%, while the pomace comes to 20%. In such conditions, the outcome of juice is comparatively lower- consisting of 76 - 78% and 24-22% pomace (see Table 4).
Chemical structure of grape juice. Dzelshavi is characterized with quite a good ability to accumulate sugar, particularly in central and lower Imereti where it is used for table wine. In upper Imereti and Racha-Lechkhumi, Dzelshavi does not accumulate such a considerable amount of sugar and is picked comparatively late. In addition to sugar concentration, it is capable of maintaining quite a high level of acidity. The appropriate proportion of sugar and acidity makes it useful for champagne. To characterize its ability to accumulate sugar and acidity, below is presented the data of the gluco-acido analysis of the grape juice used for making champagne and table wine (see Table 5 and Table 6).
To characterize the dynamic of the ripening of Dzelshavi grape, below are the results of the analysis administered by scientists V. Demetradze and Vl. Kintsurashvili in Zestafoni and Maiakovski districts (see Table 7).
As Table 7 indicates, Dzelshavi is characterized with a quite high consistency of sugar and acidity. This characteristic makes it possible for use as much for table wine as for champagne. To use it for making table wine, the harvest should be began in the end of September and last until the second half of October. During this time period, it consists of 7 - 8.0% acidity and 20% sugar or much. For making champagne, it should be picked from early to the end of September; during which time it consists of 18 - 19% sugar and 9 - 10% acidity, which is quite satisfying for champagne.
The use of the grape and the quality of wine. The production of Dzelsahvi is mostly used for making table red wine. Recently, it has also been successfully used in the champagne industry in the districts of Maiakovski and Zestafoni.
Table wine of Dzelshavi is moderate in quality. In central Imereti it creates a bright red, pinkish, relatively thin, but energetic and cheerful wine, while in upper Imereti and Racha it is much thinner and incomplete.
Dzelsahvi provides far better material for champagne, which is characterized with a bright straw-coloring, lightness, and cheerfulness.
Generally, the appropriateness of the time of harvest depends on the meteorological conditions of the given year. For champagne, Dzelshavi should be picked when it consists of 18 - 19% sugar and 9 - 10% acidity- mostly achievable in the second half of September. For table wine, it requires a consistency of 20 - 21% sugar and 7.5 - 9% acidity, this proportion can be maintained during the first half of October.
On common farms, table wine from the Dzelshavi grape is made in this way: the grape is put in the winepress and pressed by pressing machine or feet, after which the masse- consisting of juice, pomace and scion -is left in the winepress to undergo fermentation, during which time it is stirred several times with a special stirring stick. After some time the wine is transferred to clean pitchers and covered with clay. On some farms, Dzelshavi wine is made in a similar way to white wine: after pressing the grape in the winepress, pure juice is conveyed directly into pitchers to undergo fermentation; the hole for air circulation is left open on the pitchers which are then covered tightly with valve and clay.
In order to get a more colored and full wine from the winepress, the juice and pomace of Otskhanuri Safere is added to Dzelshavi new wine- about 25kg per hectoliter of wine -and then the contents of the pitchers are stirred to improve the taste. After undergoing complete fermentation, the wine is separated from the pomace.
In industrial centers, Dzelshavi grape is processed by the method used for making champagne.
Relatively better quality wine is made from Dzelshavi in the villages of Maiakovski and Zestafoni, mostly in clay and sub-clay carbonate soils. In the villages of upper and lower Imereti, it provides comparatively low quality wine.
For champagne, Dzelshavi produces better material in central Imereti; it is said that here Dzelshavi, as an admixture with Pinot, was used for making champagne even in the past.
In this direction, the experiments in Sakare station carried out by V. Demetraze showed good results. Dzelshavi wine revealed very useful material for champagne. The samples of champagne from Sakare received high estimation- 7.1 points -at a closed meeting of the Degustation Commission in the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in 1938, where it was characterized as a pure, light, harmonious wine – appropriate material for champagne. It also received high estimation in 1940 and in the following years. For example, the wine made from the 1940 yield of Dzelshavi was evaluated as bright red, pure, energetic, quite full and cheerful; while the wine of the 1944 yield was described as transparent, with the coloring of pomegranate, having a pleasant taste and well expressed original aroma. The wine of the 1947 yield of Dzelshavi also got a high estimation, being described as dark cornel-colored, light, cheerful, having a well expressed aroma and taste. To characterize the chemical structure of the wine of Dzelshavi, below are presented the results of the chemical analysis conducted in Sakare testing station (see Table 8).
As Table 8 indicates, the wine of Dzelshavi is quite rich in chemical structure, while its strength in consideration of the particular districts and years comes to 13.6 o. The acidity rarely falls below 6%. According to chemical structure, this grapevine variety completely satisfies the requirements stated for quality table wine. However, with these characteristics it is more extensively engaged in the champagne industry, and is used for lightening fuller and fleshier wines, complementing them with cheerfulness. In addition to table wine, Dzelshavi is very prospective for use in the making of non-alcoholic grape juice and spirits.
GENERAL EVALUATION AND DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT
Dzelshavi is a local, very productive grapevine variety, mostly distributed in the districts of Imereti, particularly in its central districts. The grape of Dzelshavi is used for making original table red wine and quality material for champagne. However, as it is cultivated together with other grapevine varieties, it is generally pressed and used as an admixture wine, as for example, the mix wine of Dzelshavi with either Mgaloblishvili or Otskhanuri Safere.
Presently, the harvest of Dzelshavi from Maiakovski and Zestafoni is dedicated to champagne. In other districts its grape is used for making pure wine or as a red mixing wine with other grapevine varieties.
Among the positive characteristics of Dzelshavi are its relatively high productivity, quite good resistance to powdery mildew, comparatively early ripening and use for table and champagne wines as well as for grape juice.
The negative characteristics of Dzelshavi include of low quality of production, and sensitivity to downy mildew and rot.
Dzelshavi as useful for champagne and is recommended for wide distribution in viticulture districts which are dedicated to champagne industry. It can be cultivated in the southern viticulture regions of the Soviet Union in order for use as champagne and spirits.
Wines made from the same variety