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Grzelmtevana

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Description:

                                                   GRZELMTEVANA 

Grzelmtevana is a less spread prospective vine type that provides high qualitative table white wine. In special literature of viticulture, Grzelmtevana is known by the name Forest Vine- a name still in use in some villages of Sighnaghi. 

Grzelmtevana was first found during the expeditionary study-collection of vines spread throughout Georgia, in 1933. This variety is described by the name Forest Vine on the personal plot of Tsibukashvili in the village of Bodbiskhevi (Sighnaghi district). From this vine, bud materials were cut and, after engraftment, the grafts were planted in the large collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Telavi. After several years, when the vines started to give a yield, within the variety of Forest Vine appeared two different types; one the downy Grzelmtevana and the other bare with averagely long bunches, similar to the Georgian Partala and a less interesting type. In order to clear up misunderstandings, the record of inventory and type description-which was made at the place of description -was checked. The said record confirmed that they were indeed two individual varieties as, in the column describing the down, the following was written: the down is web-like, yet leaves with no down are also to be found. From the record it was clear that a mistake had been made during the description of type, because on one vine at the same time and in the same conditions the existence of both leaves with down and those without down is impossible. Due to this, it became necessary to check locally and it was clarified that on the little pavilion of four vines on Tsibukashvili’s personal plot, only one vine was Grzelmtevana; the other three being similar to Partala, with bare leaves. These vines were so interlaced with each other that the person who was describing the vine variety committed an error. 

By questioning Tsabukashvili, the origin of the variety was defined as being from the village of Dzveli Anaga, from the personal plot of his father and his grandfather who, according to his legend, found the vine in the forest and so named it Forest Vine. With its morphological signs, it belongs to the group of prol. Pontica Negr. 

Inquires made of the population of Dzveli Anaga, and local observation of vines, concludes that some members of the collective farm still have some roots of the Grzlemtevana vine on their personal plots. 

Perhaps this vine was truly taken from forest, because wild vines, and vines which have evolved into wildness, can be found in forest; some of which developed their agro-biological features as a result of nature and the impact of culture of many centuries. Such allows the assigning of these types into a cultural group of vines. 

In order to distinguish Grzelmtevana from the type with bare leaves, and to mark it in the discovery-reproduction at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, it was named Grzelmtevana of the Institute and, for the sake of shortness we refer to it as Grzelmtevana. Presently, some roots of Grzelmtevana were found in the villages Bodbiskhevi and Dzveli Anaga. A few hundred roots of Grzelmtevana are also cultivated on the collective and reproduction plots of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Telavi and Vazisubani village; dozens of roots on the Soviet farm of Digomi; 10 - 15 roots in testing station of Sakare of Zestafoni; and on collective plots of the base point of the Institute. It is estimated from long study, that it is quite a qualitative and productive vine variety. 

From 1952, Grzelmtevana was reproduced for wide examination in manufacturing conditions. To this purpose it is cultivated on the base of the Institute on the Soviet farms of the villages Vazisubani, Tsinandali and Mukuzaani as clones and on the variety testing plot of 0.5 - 1.0 hectares. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 

Grzelmtevana was described in Kurdgelauri village in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, which is cultivated on the sloping foothills of Tsiv-Gombori at 560.0m above sea level. The vine is cultivated on stake-wire, is decorated following the Georgian bilateral wallpaper rule and is given a feeding area of 3.0 sq m. 

The young sprout. The young sprout is 15 - 20cm in length. The tips of the young sprout, with crown and first two or three- still unexpanded -leaves are covered with wavy hairs and is white in color, with slight lines around the leaves and crown and along the petiole. Leaves of the second circle, from the third leaf, are- as a result of a reduction in down on the upper side- a greenish-yellow color and, because down remains on the underside, there it is silvery–white in color. 

The one-year shoot. One-year shoots of Grzelmtevana are reddish-yellow in autumn and have a grayish hue. Inter-axil spaces are darker in color with stripes along the spaces between them which are lightly depicted. 

The leaf. Grown leaves of the middle circle are of average size (18 x 17 cm) and are rounded, rarely oval. Typically, the leaves are five-lobed, rarely, three-lobed. The lobes are well depicted. The surface of the leaf is smooth and has slightly upraised sides, rarely- leaves of the lower circle are web-like and wrinkled. The veins on the undersides of leaves are covered with bristle-like down and, at the place of branching, are light pink. 

Upper incisions are quite deep, rarely averagely deep. The shape  

of incisions varies slightly; often it is lyre-like with a narrowed cut or is right parallel-sided, with acute or pointed basis, rarely oval-eyed incisions can also be found. 

Lower incisions are slightly cut, typically average in size. Most commonly, the shape of the incision is lyre-like with an acute basis; rarely arrow-like with one convex side. 

The down of leaves on the undersides is averagely frequent, consisting of web-like hairs and bristle-like down. 

Leaves petioles are bare, are covered with slightly noticeable web-like flakes here and there. They are light pink- with longitudinal green stripes. The length of the leaf’s petiole is equal to the middle vein or slightly shorter. 

The flower. Flowers are hermaphroditic with well developed stamens and pistil. There are five or sixth straight standing stamens in a flower. The ratio of stamens thread length to the height of the pistil is almost equal and reaches 1.0 or 1.1. The pistil is rounded-cone-like, rarely covered with warts with a curled receptacle. 

The bunch. This variety is characterized by oblong winged bunches. The length of a bunch varies from 20 to 30 cm. the average length of bunch is 24 x 12cm. The length of a large bunch is 40 - 50 cm and contains 365 seeds, its weight being 640g. The weight of an average bunch is 180 - 300g and contains 142 - 208 seeds. Bunches are cone-like, rarely cylindrical-cone-like. Some wings freely reach two-thirds the bunch’s length. Bunches are normally thin; rarely, bunches of average density can also be found. The bunch is not characterized by thin seeds. Bunch pedicels are grass-like and green in color and, to the basis it becomes woody and takes on the shoot color. The length of the pedicel on average is 3.5 - 4 cm while the length of a bunch’s pedicel is 0.7 - 0.8cm and is a light green color. The berry receptacle is wide cone-like and is rugged. 

The grain. Seeds are average sized, their length varying from 1.4 to 2.0cm; the width from 1.3 to 1.9cm. The size of an average berry is 1.64 x 1.56 cm, the shape- rounded or slightly oval. Large berries are often oval and average, or thin and rounded. The middle part of the berry is wider and its end is rounded. Grains are greenish-yellow and on the sun-lit side it has dark burn spots. Its skin is thin but dense. The flesh is averagely dense, and is pleasant with a slightly depicted typical taste. Grains are covered with thin wax-like flakes and are strongly attached to the receptacle. 

The seed. The number of seeds in a berry varies from 1 to 3. There are, on average, 2.2 seeds in a grain. Seeds vary in shape: most often they are rounded-oblong in shape, rarely rounded with short tips. Their length, with tip, is 8 mm; the width is 5 mm and the length of the tip is 2.5 – 3.0 mm. The body of seeds is straw-colored and has a rounded-oval shape. The kalaza is located in the upper part of body has an oval shape, being concave in the middle. The incision from the kalaza to upper part and tip is well depicted, being narrow but deep. The abdominal side of the seed is slightly wavy or flat. Clefts of the abdomen are not deep and run towards the tip in parallel lines. The basis of the cleft is yellow; the tip is narrow cone-like, and yellowish. 

AGRO-BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Observation of the course of the vegetation period and its phases was held on the collective plot of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Kurdgelauri village, 4 kilometers from Telavi and in the collective vineyard of the Soviet farm in Dighomi. The course of the vegetation period is connected with data of the meteorological station which is located next to the collective vineyard. 

In the climate conditions of the mentioned places, the length of the vegetation period varies from 124 to 159 days and is typically equal to 150 days. The sum of active temperature varies from 2576 to 3366 and is, on average, 3045 °. According to this data, it is clear that in some years Grzelmtevana ends its vegetation period within 123 days (from 5 May to 5 September) with a sum of active temperature of 2.576 °. 

According to many years observation in the collective vineyard of Telavi, Grzelmtevana begins bud break from 20 April, flowering from 12 July, ripening from 18 August and it reaches full maturity by 15 September. Due to this timing, Grzelmtevana belongs to vine types with ripening in the second and third periods. In the conditions of Telavi, it ripens at the beginning of the third period. 

Grzelmtevana is characterized by an average strength of growth. In the collective vineyard of the Institute, its growth-development in conditions of environment equal to those of other types is comparatively average. In this regard, it can be freely compared with Rkatsileti. Grzelmteva in Bodbiskhevi is also characterized with an average strength of growth. 

In the climate conditions of Kakheti, shoots of Grzelmtevana- by the time of full grape-ripenig- freely manage to ripen and become rough- ready to face the winter frosts. 

The productivity. Grzelmtevana, like other Kakheti vine types, gives first and total harvest early. In the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, it first bears bunches in the third year from planting. During the fourth year, it gives almost total harvest- 41 bunches from 6 vines; from which 15 were large, 19 average and 7 small. On an average shoot, 0.72 bunches appeared, which must be considered normal for this type. Grzelmtevana gives a full yield in its fourth or fifth year from planting. 

Grzelmtevana is an averagely productive vine type. Its harvest on some plots varies from 1 to 2kg. The average weight of a bunch ranges from 180 to 160g. From a reproductive vineyard of Grzelmtevana, harvest taken from 30 roots was divided into three groups- large, average, and small bunches. Of the first group of large bunches there were 36% (with an average weight of 500g); of the second- average –bunches there were 48% (with an average weight of 250g); and of small bunches- 16% (with an average weight of 140g). The coefficient of harvest, according to some roots, varied from 0.41 to 1.25. If productivity of Grzelmtevana is calculated according to the average notes, particularly if we take 0.72 as the harvest coefficient and 250 g as the average weight of a bunch, we will receive 2880 - 3600g from a vine with 16 - 20 shoots, and from a hectare 96 - 120 centners of grape. For more precise characterization of its productivity, a accounting of productive and unproductive shoots was made in collective and reproductive vineyards from 1912 to1943 in order to determine the productivity of some shoots and the average weight of bunches. According to this data, the productivity of Grzelmtevana, according to years, was calculated as the following: (see Table 1).

As the notes indicate, Grzelmtevana is characterized by abundant unproductive shoots. From registration it was clear that unproductive shoots make up 14 - 35%; shoots with one bunch 58 - 59%; those with two bunches 5 - 6%; and those with three bunches 0.2%. The productivity in the collective vineyard was 91 and in reproductive vineyard reached 116.5 from one hectare. And if the fact that a calculated harvest is always more abundant than the reality is taken into consideration, then 95 - 100 centners must be considered as the average yield in the conditions of Telavi. The harvest of Grzelmtevana is almost identical in the collective vineyard of the Soviet farm of Dighomi and in the reproduction vineyard of the Institute in Telavi. 

The reasonable abundance of unproductive shoots on the first three neki of the holder significantly reduces the productivity of Grzelmtevana. On 35 roots of productive vine, ¼ are made up of neki. On the first three founding roots the coefficient is 0.41. On other shoots this does not exceed 1. Totally unproductive sprouts were at 34.4%; one-bunched shoots at 61.3%; and two-bunched shoots at 5.3%. As a result, almost one third of shoots are unproductive, which significantly reduces the total harvest of the variety. In order to avoid this defect, suitable rules of formation must be established as, in the case of normal loading, the amount of unproductive shoots will be reduced. Suitable forms are bilateral wallpaper, multi-holder form or two side short cordon. The pruning and cutting of unproductive sprouts is also possible. Presently, the variety is being tested on bilateral wallpaper with 3 sq m feeding area in the collective vineyard and as a pavilion in Bodbiskhevi village. It must be mentioned that Grzelmtevana on a pavilion is characterized by a higher coefficient of harvest (40 - 50 cm); by large bunches, larger berries (2.1 x 1.9 cm) and abundant productivity, than in case of formation with bilateral wallpaper. 

In conditions of such formation, the length of a bunch does not exceed 35cm and the size of the berry is 1.6 x 15cm and, accordingly, its productivity is lower. With accounting-observation it is confirmed that this variety bears more on shoots which are far from the basis and all the shoots which develop on the neki are of low productivity, as are the first three shoots from the holder. This can be explained by irregular loading and size of feeding area. In order to increase productivity, the following measures must be taken: 

1) In new plantations, the feeding area must be reduced to 2.25 sq according to its average growth. 

2) At the time of formation, the shapes which guarantee suitable loading must be primarily used: bilateral short cordon and multi-holder wallpaper. 

3) The detachment of buds on young sprouts before flowering or at the beginning of blossoming will increase the percentage of berries გამოხორბვლა. Denser bunches will be produced and productivity of the vine will be increased. 

Durability against fungal diseases and different environmental conditions. Grzelmtevana is characterized with good durability against fungal diseases. According to the observation held in the collective and reproductive vineyards of the Institute, its relative resistance to mildew is average and, against ash, better than average. In this regard it is closer to Kakhuri Saperavi. This variety is characterized by the same good durability against worms in conditions of Bodbiskhevi and Telavi, as types with thin bunches well endure it. Grzelmtevana also well endures winter frosts. According to the observation held in the collective vineyard, it well endured the winter frosts of 1935 despite the absolute minimum on 10 January falling to 0 16.5 °, the previous and following days having been 14.5 °. In such conditions, the buds of Grzelmtevana remained undamaged by frosts and, in 1936, gave a total and normal harvest. Such good resistance was expressed to frosts in 1940, when the absolute minimum fall was to -17 °. According to the observation which was held in the collective vineyard, Grzelmtevana better endures drought than other types. It adapts to roots which are durable against phylloxera. Grzelmtevana is experienced on 5 bb roots of Riparia X Berlnadieri and gives a better harvest when engrafted so. According to experience which derived from the study of roots in different climates and soil conditions, the following is advised: 

For soils consisting of lime (where the lime content is more than 25 - 30%) – Berlanieri X Riparia 5 bb and 420 a are recommended, and for strongly limy soils (when the lime is more than 50%) – Shasla X Berlandieri 41 b are recommended. In other soils, where the consistency of lime is less than 25%, Riparia X Rupestri 3309 is appropriate. 

TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Notes on the chemical structure of bunches and berries and the consistency of juice indicates the primary use of Grzelmtevana for wine-making, while its external appearance also lends it for use as a table grape. 

Notes regarding the mechanical structure of bunch and berry are shown in Table 2.

The notes regarding mechanical structure confirm the suitability of its use for making wine. Grzelmtevana is characterized by a relatively abundant outlet of juice and lack of hard parts. During the working of the grape in laboratorial conditions, the outlet of juice reached 78.4% and in semi- manufacturing conditions, its outlet is less- at 77.6% while of grape husks- 22.4%. 

Chemical structure of juice. Grzelmtevana is characterized by quite high sugar content and moderate acidity. According to an analysis of grapes during the harvest period- over many years - the sugar content and acidity significantly vary accordingly to some years, particularly in sugar, from 17.3 to 22%, and acidity from 5.5% to 11.4%. It is clear from the ratio of sugar-acidity that in some years, because the harvest was held early, juice was characterized by low acidity and low sugar, which must not be considered a typical feature of type. The meteorological conditions of some years, and the terms of harvest data of the chemical structure of Grzelmteva juice are shown below in Table 3.

The data of sugar and acidity indicates the priority of its use as table wine. Confirmation of this is in its great ability of accumulating sugar and acid and the suitable ratio for making European type table wine. Only in some years (1943-1945) is this ratio undone, as a result of the early harvest. In the conditions of Kakheti, where harvest normally starts from the beginning of September and lasts until the second part of October, the amount of sugar accumulation is not maximum and, as in the case of the late harvest of Rkatsileti, the amount of sugar consistency in the grape and juice can be significantly increased if dessert and other types wines are to be produced from it. 

Use of grape and characterization of production. Table wine is made from Grzelmtevana, which can be partly used as a local-use table grape.

The testing wine of Grzelmtevana appeared quite qualitative. From the first year of harvest it merited attention with its softness of wine and harmonic taste. Wine made from Grzelmtevana always achieved high estimation at Degustations as a European wine type of good quality. 

This characterization allows the inclusion of Grzelmtevana in the group of best table grapes. In comparison with other prospective varieties of Kakheti, particularly Kisi and Chitistvala, the wine of Grzelmtevana is a European type. Kisi gives better wine when it is made by Kakheti rule. This characterization is for young one-year wines. The quality of three years wine which is stored in bottles significantly improves, becoming more harmonic and developing an aroma typical to the type. Older wines, because of the lack of vines, are not presently preserved. In order to characterize the chemical nature of the wine, below is shown the main data of the wine’s chemical structure (see Table 4).

As the notes in Table 4 indicate, wine made from Grzelmtevana is characterized by quite a rich consistency; both alcohol and acids are contained within it at the amount necessary for qualitative wine. In some years, such a large amount of sugar accumulates in the grape that it is reasonable to make dessert and semi-sweet wines from it. In the south-east of Kakheti, where the climate is relatively warm, Grzelmtevana can be used for the making of dessert and semi-sweet wines. It must be mentioned that this variety is prospective for the making of soft grape juice, as the habitual aroma of its grape juice and pleasant taste makes this production very attractive. 

Apart from wine, it provides local table grape and is characterized by the attractive external appearance of the bunch. Well developed bunches are 35-40cm in length and 400-600g in weight. The length of an average bunch is 20 - 30cm and weight is 250 - 300g. Bunches are thin and branching, rarely averagely dense, and the berries are equally ripening in the bunch and are almost equal in size. 

The berries are average or larger than average. The size of a large berry is 2.0 x 1.9 cm, the average- 1.63 x 1.54 cm. Grains are greenish in color with burn spots noticeable on sun-lit sides and are oval, with skin that is covered with thin wax-like flakes. 

The taste of berries is pleasant, harmonic; its sugar content is quite high and acidity is moderate. On average, its sugar is 20% and acidity 6.0%. The skin is thin but dense. The number of seeds in a berry does not exceed 2.2. The seed easily separates from the flesh, which is averagely dense, and has an aroma that is slightly depicted. It is indubitably soft and pleasant. 

The grape is characterized by weak transportability; it endures careful transfer only over small distances and, due to this, it can be used only for local consumption. 

Variations and clones. Due to the fact that the variety, that was brought from the Institute of Viticulture plot of Bodbiskhevi, was mixed with other rootstock, variations and clones have not yet been identified. Some variations of the Grzelmtevana vine can be found in the village Dzveli Anaga, but selection work was not conducted. The study of such vines is necessary in future to find better forms. 

GENERAL EVALUATION AND DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT 

Grzelmtevana is a local lesser spread vine type. It produces a European type table wine, and is useful as a local consumption table grape and, in the south-east of Kakheti, is prospective for the making of dessert and fortified wines. 

The best feature of Grzelmtevana is that it gives qualitative table wine which is amber-colored and clear, pleasant, with a typical aroma, soft taste and harmony. It is especially high qualitative wine and is made by European rule. 

The positive features of this variety are a high quality of wine and a validity for making various wine types and also for making soft grape juice. It is also used as a local consumption table grape. It must be mentioned that it well endures winter frosts and fungal diseases, especially ash. 

The negative feature of this variety is that is gives non abundant and uneven harvests some years; a defect that can be easily improved with suitable formation and by using agro rules in the care-treatment of vines. Grzelmtevana, as a result of many years study, is considered prospective. Presently, it is cultivated in manufacturing conditions for wide testing and, as a result, it is recommended for inclusion in the standard assortment of the region and for spreading in manufacturing conditions. 

The Georgian brand wine assortment will be enriched by the addition of Grzelmtevana with its habitual look; a new sample of soft aromatic table wine. 

Grzelmtevana should be widely used for the improvement of other white wines, especially Rkatsiteli. Generally, qualitative wine is rarely made from only one type. By adding a determined amount of Grzelmtevana, the quality of Rkatsiteli can be significantly improved- also its softness and aroma. 

In order to hasten its spread in manufacturing conditions, it must be annually cultivated in the main viticulture districts of Kartli and Kakheti in order to test its agro and technical features in order to be more effectively cultivated.

Grzelmtevana

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Description:

                                                   GRZELMTEVANA 

Grzelmtevana is a less spread prospective vine type that provides high qualitative table white wine. In special literature of viticulture, Grzelmtevana is known by the name Forest Vine- a name still in use in some villages of Sighnaghi. 

Grzelmtevana was first found during the expeditionary study-collection of vines spread throughout Georgia, in 1933. This variety is described by the name Forest Vine on the personal plot of Tsibukashvili in the village of Bodbiskhevi (Sighnaghi district). From this vine, bud materials were cut and, after engraftment, the grafts were planted in the large collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Telavi. After several years, when the vines started to give a yield, within the variety of Forest Vine appeared two different types; one the downy Grzelmtevana and the other bare with averagely long bunches, similar to the Georgian Partala and a less interesting type. In order to clear up misunderstandings, the record of inventory and type description-which was made at the place of description -was checked. The said record confirmed that they were indeed two individual varieties as, in the column describing the down, the following was written: the down is web-like, yet leaves with no down are also to be found. From the record it was clear that a mistake had been made during the description of type, because on one vine at the same time and in the same conditions the existence of both leaves with down and those without down is impossible. Due to this, it became necessary to check locally and it was clarified that on the little pavilion of four vines on Tsibukashvili’s personal plot, only one vine was Grzelmtevana; the other three being similar to Partala, with bare leaves. These vines were so interlaced with each other that the person who was describing the vine variety committed an error. 

By questioning Tsabukashvili, the origin of the variety was defined as being from the village of Dzveli Anaga, from the personal plot of his father and his grandfather who, according to his legend, found the vine in the forest and so named it Forest Vine. With its morphological signs, it belongs to the group of prol. Pontica Negr. 

Inquires made of the population of Dzveli Anaga, and local observation of vines, concludes that some members of the collective farm still have some roots of the Grzlemtevana vine on their personal plots. 

Perhaps this vine was truly taken from forest, because wild vines, and vines which have evolved into wildness, can be found in forest; some of which developed their agro-biological features as a result of nature and the impact of culture of many centuries. Such allows the assigning of these types into a cultural group of vines. 

In order to distinguish Grzelmtevana from the type with bare leaves, and to mark it in the discovery-reproduction at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, it was named Grzelmtevana of the Institute and, for the sake of shortness we refer to it as Grzelmtevana. Presently, some roots of Grzelmtevana were found in the villages Bodbiskhevi and Dzveli Anaga. A few hundred roots of Grzelmtevana are also cultivated on the collective and reproduction plots of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Telavi and Vazisubani village; dozens of roots on the Soviet farm of Digomi; 10 - 15 roots in testing station of Sakare of Zestafoni; and on collective plots of the base point of the Institute. It is estimated from long study, that it is quite a qualitative and productive vine variety. 

From 1952, Grzelmtevana was reproduced for wide examination in manufacturing conditions. To this purpose it is cultivated on the base of the Institute on the Soviet farms of the villages Vazisubani, Tsinandali and Mukuzaani as clones and on the variety testing plot of 0.5 - 1.0 hectares. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 

Grzelmtevana was described in Kurdgelauri village in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, which is cultivated on the sloping foothills of Tsiv-Gombori at 560.0m above sea level. The vine is cultivated on stake-wire, is decorated following the Georgian bilateral wallpaper rule and is given a feeding area of 3.0 sq m. 

The young sprout. The young sprout is 15 - 20cm in length. The tips of the young sprout, with crown and first two or three- still unexpanded -leaves are covered with wavy hairs and is white in color, with slight lines around the leaves and crown and along the petiole. Leaves of the second circle, from the third leaf, are- as a result of a reduction in down on the upper side- a greenish-yellow color and, because down remains on the underside, there it is silvery–white in color. 

The one-year shoot. One-year shoots of Grzelmtevana are reddish-yellow in autumn and have a grayish hue. Inter-axil spaces are darker in color with stripes along the spaces between them which are lightly depicted. 

The leaf. Grown leaves of the middle circle are of average size (18 x 17 cm) and are rounded, rarely oval. Typically, the leaves are five-lobed, rarely, three-lobed. The lobes are well depicted. The surface of the leaf is smooth and has slightly upraised sides, rarely- leaves of the lower circle are web-like and wrinkled. The veins on the undersides of leaves are covered with bristle-like down and, at the place of branching, are light pink. 

Upper incisions are quite deep, rarely averagely deep. The shape  

of incisions varies slightly; often it is lyre-like with a narrowed cut or is right parallel-sided, with acute or pointed basis, rarely oval-eyed incisions can also be found. 

Lower incisions are slightly cut, typically average in size. Most commonly, the shape of the incision is lyre-like with an acute basis; rarely arrow-like with one convex side. 

The down of leaves on the undersides is averagely frequent, consisting of web-like hairs and bristle-like down. 

Leaves petioles are bare, are covered with slightly noticeable web-like flakes here and there. They are light pink- with longitudinal green stripes. The length of the leaf’s petiole is equal to the middle vein or slightly shorter. 

The flower. Flowers are hermaphroditic with well developed stamens and pistil. There are five or sixth straight standing stamens in a flower. The ratio of stamens thread length to the height of the pistil is almost equal and reaches 1.0 or 1.1. The pistil is rounded-cone-like, rarely covered with warts with a curled receptacle. 

The bunch. This variety is characterized by oblong winged bunches. The length of a bunch varies from 20 to 30 cm. the average length of bunch is 24 x 12cm. The length of a large bunch is 40 - 50 cm and contains 365 seeds, its weight being 640g. The weight of an average bunch is 180 - 300g and contains 142 - 208 seeds. Bunches are cone-like, rarely cylindrical-cone-like. Some wings freely reach two-thirds the bunch’s length. Bunches are normally thin; rarely, bunches of average density can also be found. The bunch is not characterized by thin seeds. Bunch pedicels are grass-like and green in color and, to the basis it becomes woody and takes on the shoot color. The length of the pedicel on average is 3.5 - 4 cm while the length of a bunch’s pedicel is 0.7 - 0.8cm and is a light green color. The berry receptacle is wide cone-like and is rugged. 

The grain. Seeds are average sized, their length varying from 1.4 to 2.0cm; the width from 1.3 to 1.9cm. The size of an average berry is 1.64 x 1.56 cm, the shape- rounded or slightly oval. Large berries are often oval and average, or thin and rounded. The middle part of the berry is wider and its end is rounded. Grains are greenish-yellow and on the sun-lit side it has dark burn spots. Its skin is thin but dense. The flesh is averagely dense, and is pleasant with a slightly depicted typical taste. Grains are covered with thin wax-like flakes and are strongly attached to the receptacle. 

The seed. The number of seeds in a berry varies from 1 to 3. There are, on average, 2.2 seeds in a grain. Seeds vary in shape: most often they are rounded-oblong in shape, rarely rounded with short tips. Their length, with tip, is 8 mm; the width is 5 mm and the length of the tip is 2.5 – 3.0 mm. The body of seeds is straw-colored and has a rounded-oval shape. The kalaza is located in the upper part of body has an oval shape, being concave in the middle. The incision from the kalaza to upper part and tip is well depicted, being narrow but deep. The abdominal side of the seed is slightly wavy or flat. Clefts of the abdomen are not deep and run towards the tip in parallel lines. The basis of the cleft is yellow; the tip is narrow cone-like, and yellowish. 

AGRO-BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Observation of the course of the vegetation period and its phases was held on the collective plot of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology in Kurdgelauri village, 4 kilometers from Telavi and in the collective vineyard of the Soviet farm in Dighomi. The course of the vegetation period is connected with data of the meteorological station which is located next to the collective vineyard. 

In the climate conditions of the mentioned places, the length of the vegetation period varies from 124 to 159 days and is typically equal to 150 days. The sum of active temperature varies from 2576 to 3366 and is, on average, 3045 °. According to this data, it is clear that in some years Grzelmtevana ends its vegetation period within 123 days (from 5 May to 5 September) with a sum of active temperature of 2.576 °. 

According to many years observation in the collective vineyard of Telavi, Grzelmtevana begins bud break from 20 April, flowering from 12 July, ripening from 18 August and it reaches full maturity by 15 September. Due to this timing, Grzelmtevana belongs to vine types with ripening in the second and third periods. In the conditions of Telavi, it ripens at the beginning of the third period. 

Grzelmtevana is characterized by an average strength of growth. In the collective vineyard of the Institute, its growth-development in conditions of environment equal to those of other types is comparatively average. In this regard, it can be freely compared with Rkatsileti. Grzelmteva in Bodbiskhevi is also characterized with an average strength of growth. 

In the climate conditions of Kakheti, shoots of Grzelmtevana- by the time of full grape-ripenig- freely manage to ripen and become rough- ready to face the winter frosts. 

The productivity. Grzelmtevana, like other Kakheti vine types, gives first and total harvest early. In the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, it first bears bunches in the third year from planting. During the fourth year, it gives almost total harvest- 41 bunches from 6 vines; from which 15 were large, 19 average and 7 small. On an average shoot, 0.72 bunches appeared, which must be considered normal for this type. Grzelmtevana gives a full yield in its fourth or fifth year from planting. 

Grzelmtevana is an averagely productive vine type. Its harvest on some plots varies from 1 to 2kg. The average weight of a bunch ranges from 180 to 160g. From a reproductive vineyard of Grzelmtevana, harvest taken from 30 roots was divided into three groups- large, average, and small bunches. Of the first group of large bunches there were 36% (with an average weight of 500g); of the second- average –bunches there were 48% (with an average weight of 250g); and of small bunches- 16% (with an average weight of 140g). The coefficient of harvest, according to some roots, varied from 0.41 to 1.25. If productivity of Grzelmtevana is calculated according to the average notes, particularly if we take 0.72 as the harvest coefficient and 250 g as the average weight of a bunch, we will receive 2880 - 3600g from a vine with 16 - 20 shoots, and from a hectare 96 - 120 centners of grape. For more precise characterization of its productivity, a accounting of productive and unproductive shoots was made in collective and reproductive vineyards from 1912 to1943 in order to determine the productivity of some shoots and the average weight of bunches. According to this data, the productivity of Grzelmtevana, according to years, was calculated as the following: (see Table 1).

As the notes indicate, Grzelmtevana is characterized by abundant unproductive shoots. From registration it was clear that unproductive shoots make up 14 - 35%; shoots with one bunch 58 - 59%; those with two bunches 5 - 6%; and those with three bunches 0.2%. The productivity in the collective vineyard was 91 and in reproductive vineyard reached 116.5 from one hectare. And if the fact that a calculated harvest is always more abundant than the reality is taken into consideration, then 95 - 100 centners must be considered as the average yield in the conditions of Telavi. The harvest of Grzelmtevana is almost identical in the collective vineyard of the Soviet farm of Dighomi and in the reproduction vineyard of the Institute in Telavi. 

The reasonable abundance of unproductive shoots on the first three neki of the holder significantly reduces the productivity of Grzelmtevana. On 35 roots of productive vine, ¼ are made up of neki. On the first three founding roots the coefficient is 0.41. On other shoots this does not exceed 1. Totally unproductive sprouts were at 34.4%; one-bunched shoots at 61.3%; and two-bunched shoots at 5.3%. As a result, almost one third of shoots are unproductive, which significantly reduces the total harvest of the variety. In order to avoid this defect, suitable rules of formation must be established as, in the case of normal loading, the amount of unproductive shoots will be reduced. Suitable forms are bilateral wallpaper, multi-holder form or two side short cordon. The pruning and cutting of unproductive sprouts is also possible. Presently, the variety is being tested on bilateral wallpaper with 3 sq m feeding area in the collective vineyard and as a pavilion in Bodbiskhevi village. It must be mentioned that Grzelmtevana on a pavilion is characterized by a higher coefficient of harvest (40 - 50 cm); by large bunches, larger berries (2.1 x 1.9 cm) and abundant productivity, than in case of formation with bilateral wallpaper. 

In conditions of such formation, the length of a bunch does not exceed 35cm and the size of the berry is 1.6 x 15cm and, accordingly, its productivity is lower. With accounting-observation it is confirmed that this variety bears more on shoots which are far from the basis and all the shoots which develop on the neki are of low productivity, as are the first three shoots from the holder. This can be explained by irregular loading and size of feeding area. In order to increase productivity, the following measures must be taken: 

1) In new plantations, the feeding area must be reduced to 2.25 sq according to its average growth. 

2) At the time of formation, the shapes which guarantee suitable loading must be primarily used: bilateral short cordon and multi-holder wallpaper. 

3) The detachment of buds on young sprouts before flowering or at the beginning of blossoming will increase the percentage of berries გამოხორბვლა. Denser bunches will be produced and productivity of the vine will be increased. 

Durability against fungal diseases and different environmental conditions. Grzelmtevana is characterized with good durability against fungal diseases. According to the observation held in the collective and reproductive vineyards of the Institute, its relative resistance to mildew is average and, against ash, better than average. In this regard it is closer to Kakhuri Saperavi. This variety is characterized by the same good durability against worms in conditions of Bodbiskhevi and Telavi, as types with thin bunches well endure it. Grzelmtevana also well endures winter frosts. According to the observation held in the collective vineyard, it well endured the winter frosts of 1935 despite the absolute minimum on 10 January falling to 0 16.5 °, the previous and following days having been 14.5 °. In such conditions, the buds of Grzelmtevana remained undamaged by frosts and, in 1936, gave a total and normal harvest. Such good resistance was expressed to frosts in 1940, when the absolute minimum fall was to -17 °. According to the observation which was held in the collective vineyard, Grzelmtevana better endures drought than other types. It adapts to roots which are durable against phylloxera. Grzelmtevana is experienced on 5 bb roots of Riparia X Berlnadieri and gives a better harvest when engrafted so. According to experience which derived from the study of roots in different climates and soil conditions, the following is advised: 

For soils consisting of lime (where the lime content is more than 25 - 30%) – Berlanieri X Riparia 5 bb and 420 a are recommended, and for strongly limy soils (when the lime is more than 50%) – Shasla X Berlandieri 41 b are recommended. In other soils, where the consistency of lime is less than 25%, Riparia X Rupestri 3309 is appropriate. 

TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Notes on the chemical structure of bunches and berries and the consistency of juice indicates the primary use of Grzelmtevana for wine-making, while its external appearance also lends it for use as a table grape. 

Notes regarding the mechanical structure of bunch and berry are shown in Table 2.

The notes regarding mechanical structure confirm the suitability of its use for making wine. Grzelmtevana is characterized by a relatively abundant outlet of juice and lack of hard parts. During the working of the grape in laboratorial conditions, the outlet of juice reached 78.4% and in semi- manufacturing conditions, its outlet is less- at 77.6% while of grape husks- 22.4%. 

Chemical structure of juice. Grzelmtevana is characterized by quite high sugar content and moderate acidity. According to an analysis of grapes during the harvest period- over many years - the sugar content and acidity significantly vary accordingly to some years, particularly in sugar, from 17.3 to 22%, and acidity from 5.5% to 11.4%. It is clear from the ratio of sugar-acidity that in some years, because the harvest was held early, juice was characterized by low acidity and low sugar, which must not be considered a typical feature of type. The meteorological conditions of some years, and the terms of harvest data of the chemical structure of Grzelmteva juice are shown below in Table 3.

The data of sugar and acidity indicates the priority of its use as table wine. Confirmation of this is in its great ability of accumulating sugar and acid and the suitable ratio for making European type table wine. Only in some years (1943-1945) is this ratio undone, as a result of the early harvest. In the conditions of Kakheti, where harvest normally starts from the beginning of September and lasts until the second part of October, the amount of sugar accumulation is not maximum and, as in the case of the late harvest of Rkatsileti, the amount of sugar consistency in the grape and juice can be significantly increased if dessert and other types wines are to be produced from it. 

Use of grape and characterization of production. Table wine is made from Grzelmtevana, which can be partly used as a local-use table grape.

The testing wine of Grzelmtevana appeared quite qualitative. From the first year of harvest it merited attention with its softness of wine and harmonic taste. Wine made from Grzelmtevana always achieved high estimation at Degustations as a European wine type of good quality. 

This characterization allows the inclusion of Grzelmtevana in the group of best table grapes. In comparison with other prospective varieties of Kakheti, particularly Kisi and Chitistvala, the wine of Grzelmtevana is a European type. Kisi gives better wine when it is made by Kakheti rule. This characterization is for young one-year wines. The quality of three years wine which is stored in bottles significantly improves, becoming more harmonic and developing an aroma typical to the type. Older wines, because of the lack of vines, are not presently preserved. In order to characterize the chemical nature of the wine, below is shown the main data of the wine’s chemical structure (see Table 4).

As the notes in Table 4 indicate, wine made from Grzelmtevana is characterized by quite a rich consistency; both alcohol and acids are contained within it at the amount necessary for qualitative wine. In some years, such a large amount of sugar accumulates in the grape that it is reasonable to make dessert and semi-sweet wines from it. In the south-east of Kakheti, where the climate is relatively warm, Grzelmtevana can be used for the making of dessert and semi-sweet wines. It must be mentioned that this variety is prospective for the making of soft grape juice, as the habitual aroma of its grape juice and pleasant taste makes this production very attractive. 

Apart from wine, it provides local table grape and is characterized by the attractive external appearance of the bunch. Well developed bunches are 35-40cm in length and 400-600g in weight. The length of an average bunch is 20 - 30cm and weight is 250 - 300g. Bunches are thin and branching, rarely averagely dense, and the berries are equally ripening in the bunch and are almost equal in size. 

The berries are average or larger than average. The size of a large berry is 2.0 x 1.9 cm, the average- 1.63 x 1.54 cm. Grains are greenish in color with burn spots noticeable on sun-lit sides and are oval, with skin that is covered with thin wax-like flakes. 

The taste of berries is pleasant, harmonic; its sugar content is quite high and acidity is moderate. On average, its sugar is 20% and acidity 6.0%. The skin is thin but dense. The number of seeds in a berry does not exceed 2.2. The seed easily separates from the flesh, which is averagely dense, and has an aroma that is slightly depicted. It is indubitably soft and pleasant. 

The grape is characterized by weak transportability; it endures careful transfer only over small distances and, due to this, it can be used only for local consumption. 

Variations and clones. Due to the fact that the variety, that was brought from the Institute of Viticulture plot of Bodbiskhevi, was mixed with other rootstock, variations and clones have not yet been identified. Some variations of the Grzelmtevana vine can be found in the village Dzveli Anaga, but selection work was not conducted. The study of such vines is necessary in future to find better forms. 

GENERAL EVALUATION AND DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT 

Grzelmtevana is a local lesser spread vine type. It produces a European type table wine, and is useful as a local consumption table grape and, in the south-east of Kakheti, is prospective for the making of dessert and fortified wines. 

The best feature of Grzelmtevana is that it gives qualitative table wine which is amber-colored and clear, pleasant, with a typical aroma, soft taste and harmony. It is especially high qualitative wine and is made by European rule. 

The positive features of this variety are a high quality of wine and a validity for making various wine types and also for making soft grape juice. It is also used as a local consumption table grape. It must be mentioned that it well endures winter frosts and fungal diseases, especially ash. 

The negative feature of this variety is that is gives non abundant and uneven harvests some years; a defect that can be easily improved with suitable formation and by using agro rules in the care-treatment of vines. Grzelmtevana, as a result of many years study, is considered prospective. Presently, it is cultivated in manufacturing conditions for wide testing and, as a result, it is recommended for inclusion in the standard assortment of the region and for spreading in manufacturing conditions. 

The Georgian brand wine assortment will be enriched by the addition of Grzelmtevana with its habitual look; a new sample of soft aromatic table wine. 

Grzelmtevana should be widely used for the improvement of other white wines, especially Rkatsiteli. Generally, qualitative wine is rarely made from only one type. By adding a determined amount of Grzelmtevana, the quality of Rkatsiteli can be significantly improved- also its softness and aroma. 

In order to hasten its spread in manufacturing conditions, it must be annually cultivated in the main viticulture districts of Kartli and Kakheti in order to test its agro and technical features in order to be more effectively cultivated.

Wines made from the same variety