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                                          MTSVANE KAKHURI 

Mtsvane is a standard grapevine variety of Kakheti, providing European and Kakheti type high quality table wine. It was named so to express the yellowish-green coloring of ripened berries. 

According to special viticulture literature and local viticulturists, this grapevine variety was known by many other names. The scholar L. Jorjadze (8) mentioned it by the names Mchknara and Safena; agr. S. Kvariani (15) differentiated the female and male Mtsvane; famous Russian researcher, Fr. Kolenati distinguished three kinds of Mtsvane: Zuanica major, Z. minory et Z. carris. In foreign ampelographies Mtsvane is shortly described and mentioned by the name Mtzvane–Mtzvani–Mzoanis (21). 

Mtsvane is a local grapevine variety, with its morphological and agricultural features being similar to the local grapevine varieties and seeming to have originated from the eco-geographical family of grapevine varieties - prol pontic, sub prol. georgica Negr. (17). 

More difficulty is connected with the issue of identifying the date of its origin as there is more material evidence available to make conclusions. However, this can be judged by some morphological characteristics. Generally, the old grapevine varieties have experienced much stronger the influence of the environment through the centuries. Based on its biological description, Mtsvane should be considered as quite an old grapevine variety. Presently, there are more than six variations and clones of Mtsvane revealed in Georgia that indicates its long age; it even seems to be older than Rkatsiteli, a fact also proved by the following author. Based on linguistic analysis, Iv. Javakhishvili considers Mtsvane as originating from the 5th and the following centuries (A.D). In the past, before the spread of fungal diseases, Mtsvane was widely cultivated in Kakheti. In the 19th century, S. Kvaruani (15) wrote: “Mtsvane is very extensively cultivated in all Kakheti, and in “Tbilisivealed” district, - in the villages across the river Ivri.” This is underlined also by V. Geevski and G. Shareri (11), who additionally state that, due to the influence of powdery mildew Mtsvane is on the border of destruction. Even though Mtsvane is the best among the white grapevine varieties of Kakheti, people tended to avoid the cultivation of Mtsvane because of sensitivity to the environment 

Within an agenda concerned with the development of viticulture and quality wine-making, this grapevine variety has been included in the industrial standard assortment of grapevine varieties of Kakheti, since 1936, and is planned for wide cultivation and re-cultivation in large areas. 

Nowadays, Mtsvane is cultivated in Eastern Georgia, mostly in Kakheti (96%), from which, 83% has been dedicated in two districts (of Kacheti in Telavi and Sagarejo), while the remaining 17% of Mtsvane vineyards are situated in the other five districts. Based on 1953 descriptive data of vineyards, Mtsvane was dedicated 1.184 hectares in Georgia; the scope being cultivated in the following way: in Kakheti – 1039 hectares- that is 6.7% of the entire land-scope, in lower Kartli – 15 ha (0.6%), in central Kartli – 62 ha (1.0%) and in Western Georgia, totally, - 68 ha. Therefore, in 1953, 1184 ha i.e. 2.5% of the whole land-scope of vineyards was dedicated to Mtsvane. 

In Georgia, Mtsvane is cultivated separately from other varieties on 1054 hectares; in Kakheti, it has dedicated 1039 ha- 6.7% of the entire vineyard scope. In Western Georgia, Mtsvane is not cultivated, only in collective and testing vineyards can it be found. Outside of Georgia, Mtsvane can be found in testing vineyards, as for example in the central Asian republics, in Ukraine, Crimea, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Daghestan (on the soviet farm Tsiteli Partizani at 1.8 hectares). Relatively limited distribution of Mtsvane as much in Georgia as outside of it can be explained by its low resistance to powdery mildew, sensitivity to soils and climate conditions, sometimes caused by the underestimation of its values due to lack of knowledge. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 

Mtsvane was described in the village of Vazisubani, in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology that is cultivated on the slight slope of the Tsiv-Gombori Mountain, at 565m above sea level, formed by stake-wire, by cordon. 

The young shoot. The young (15-20cm long) shoot with its tip, crown, and two almost closed leaves is covered with thick felt-like coating, is white and has a slightly pinkish circle around the crown and across the petiole. The leaves of the second row on the topside are coated with quite thick web-like down, are yellowish-green, while on the downside are covered with thick felt-like coating and is pinkish-gray-white. 

The one year sprout. The one year sprout is grayish yellow-colored in autumn, while to the side of sun is grayish. The axils are distanced by 6 - 10 cm, often 8cm, from each other. 

The leaf. The leaves of the middle row are moderate in size (18- 18.5cm) and dark green. The leaf is rounded, rarely can be slightly oval; its surface is wrinkled like a net, rarely consists of blisters; more often, the leaf is five-lobed, rarely –three. The blade of a leaf is not straight- it is similar to a funnel or bent. 

The upper incisions are varied as in depth as in shape, mostly can meet quite deep or extremely cut incisions; with a closed shape, with an egg-like eye, or having either rounded or sharp basis, rarely being similar to a lyre, with parallel sides and sharp basis, which can be rarely cut angular or can have one tooth. 

The incision of the petiole can be closed as well as opened like an arch; often being closed elliptical or lyre-like. 

The major veins of the leaf end with right triangular sharpened teeth, rarely can meet convex-sided teeth. The lateral teeth are triangular or like saw teeth, with convex sides and sharpened tip.

The leaf on the underside is coated like a web, on the downside is covered with quite thick rough coating that becomes intensive from the down to the topside. The coating of leaves of the below row are coated more thickly. 

The petiole of the leaf is uncoated, rarely can notice thin web-like hairs. The petiole is equal to the major vein or slightly shorter. The petiole is bright wine-colored with greenish lines.

The flower. The flower is hermaphroditic and well-structured. The stamens are upright standing; there are five, rarely six stamens in a flower. The proportion of the stamen’s length to the height of a pistil equals 1.25 or 1.5. The pistil is roundish cone-shaped, with well-depicted column and two-lobed nose.

The bunch. The bunch of Mtsvane is middle-sized, about 12-17cm long and 9-15cm wide. The size of an average bunch is 14 x 10.5cm. The bunch is wide cone-shaped, having a shoulder that can be half or 2/3 of bunch’s length. Bunches are generally quite dense, or can rarely be thin. The average weight of a bunch is 165-170g; there are about 118 berries on a bunch, more than the half of them are large, while the remaining moderate or small. The pedicel of a bunch is 3.5 - 6.0cm long and 4.5cm wide; this is grass-like, green, to the basis becoming woody; the bunch is easy to pick. The receptacle is rough and wide cone-shaped; berries are quite firmly attached to it. 

The berry. The majority of berries are middle-sized, about 1.35 - 3.8cm long and 1.2 - 1.6cm wide, with the average size being 1.45 x 1.25. The berry is oval, wider in the middle part with a rounded end; the skin is thin, easily separable from the flesh that is melt-able and with clear juice. The berry is yellowish-green, covered with waxy spots that give a tender greenish coloring. The juice is sweet and pleasant, with a very tender original aroma.

The seed. There are 1-4 seeds in a berry. 100 berries of Mtsvane consist of 6% one-seeded berries, 64% - two-seeded, 26% - three-seeded and 4% - four-seeded. The seed is 6 - 7mm long and 4 - 4.3mm wide, while the beak is 2.0 - 2.5mm long. The seed is roundish-oval, and brownish-yellow. The basis is placed in the upper area or a seed; this is roundish and concaved to the inside that is rocky. The channels on the inside are deep and parallel; divide the body of a seed into two; its basis is yellow, slightly widen – to the topside of the beak. The beak is bright-brown on the topside, while on the downside – yellowish-orange. 

AGRO-BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Vegetative period and course of its phases. Observations of the vegetation period and course of its phases were conducted in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology. To characterize the course of vegetative phases, below are presented the findings of observations provided in Kakheti, Ukraine, central Asia and Dagestan (see Table 1).

As Table 1 indicates, the vegetation periods in these four zones vary significantly from each other. Between Telavi and Odessa, this difference equals one week, while between Telavi and Derbenti – 16 days. This is caused by the fact that, in relation to Dorbenti, is shown the physiological ripening that arrives 10-12 days earlier than the full ripening. Relatively less variable is the sum of active temperatures that in Telavi equals 3.199o, in Odessa – 3.170o, while in Derbenti – 3.019o. Mtsvane arrives to ripening the earliest (on 26 August) in central Asia (Tashkent), then in Daghestan and Telavi, the latest – in Odessa. Therefore, the sum of active temperatures can be successfully taken into account as one of the basic indicators before introducing this grapevine variety to any district.

The sprout in Kakheti arrives to ripening quite successfully, as this area is characterized with a high sum of active temperatures and consequently the vegetation period is long. However, in relatively cooler districts, for example in Ukraine (Odessa district) where leaf-fall does not occur naturally, the vegetation period can be interrupted by the beginning of autumn frosts. Based on the observation by E. Komarova (16) the sprouts of Mtsvane can successfully ripen in Odessa as well as in Derbenti during the 183 vegetation period, characterizing the sum of temperatures as 3.754o. 

In comparison with other local grapevine varieties, Mtsvane is characterized with moderate growth, as it is in Ukraine and Daghestan. In central Asian republics, namely in Uzbekistan, on a 5m2 feeding area, Mtsvane is characterized with strong growth, however on the same sized feeding area, its growth remains moderate in comparison with other grapevine varieties. 

The productivity. Like the majority of grapevine varieties of Kakheti, Mtsvane is early harvesting, providing its first yield from the second year, while from the following year becoming completely productive. This is characteristic for this grapevine variety in other viticulture districts also. For example, in Uzbekistan, from the second year 212 bunches developed on 157 sprouts, or 1.35 bunches on a sprout; while the full productivity of Mtsvane, in the same place was 740 bunches on 475 sprouts, or 1.55 bunches on a sprout. In Ukraine, according to E. Komarova (16), Mtsvane provides the first signs of harvesting from the third year; as it does in Derbent, according to M. Peiteli, where first signs of productivity appear from the third or fourth years. Generally, proper care and nurturing makes the first signs of productivity arrive earlier. 

The grapevine variety Mtsvane is characterized with relatively high productivity and high quality; based on long observations, Mtsvane in its productivity, is compatible with Rkatsiteli and Saperavi. 

Since the spread of fungal diseases, the distribution of Mtsvane has been limited; this indicates that Mtsvane is very vulnerable to powdery mildew and sensitive to the environment. However, by applying advanced agro-techniques, Mtsvane can maintain as high productivity and quality production as Rkatsiteli. For example, on the soviet farm of Nafareuli, in Saniore vineyard at 6 hectares land scope. Mtsvane was always more productive annually than Rkatsiteli and provided very high quality wine. The characteristics of the productivity of Mtsvane are presented below (see Table 2).

Based on the given data it can be said that Mtsvane is characterized with quite high productivity annually. This grapevine variety is high productive in Mukuzani, providing 35.6 - 52.6 centners per hectare, in Manavi – 46.4-55.9 centners (while in 1948 – 66 centners) and is characterized with higher than moderate productivity – 56.2-114 centners per hectare – in Kulari, Gurjaani, and on Khirsi Soviet farm; as for example, in Derbent, according to M. Peiteli, the productivity of Mtsvane in the testing vineyard varied from 39.24 to 92.8 centners, with 3-year mean of 59.57 centners; in the collective vineyard it consisted of 126.4 centners; on the Soviet farm Tsiteli Partizani, in 1947 –92 centners were obtained, in 1948 – 102 centners and in 1949 – 168 centners of grape per hectare; in Odessa, in the testing vineyard - 60-70 centners, while in Uzbekistan (Tarnaushi) 170 centners of grape per hectare.

For more precise characterization of the productivity, extensive analyses were conducted focusing on the number of sprouts, bunches, productive shoots and average weight of a bunch. Based on this data, the number of productive shoots varied from 61.8% (in Odessa) to 80% (in Derbenti), while in Telavi – 75%. The coefficient of productivity varied from 1.24 (in Derbenti) to 1.4 (Odessa), in Telavi – equaled 1.30. The average weight of a bunch varied from 137g (in Odessa) to 172 g (Telavi). The productivity per hectare varied from 60.7 centners (in Ukraine) to 124. 4 centners (Derbenti), while in Telavi – 74. 4 centners, which is close to the average productivity of the Soviet farm.

Mtsvane is characterized with excessive flower-fall. This phenomenon was explored in the village of Vazisubani that represents the testing station of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology. The vines for this investigation were selected in the collective vineyard that was cultivated in 1926, formed by stake-wire-consisting cordon on a 2.15m2 feeding area. Vines are grafted on Riparia X Berlandieri N420a. The revealed findings are presented in Table 3.

As Table 3 indicates, the percentage of knotting of berries varies from 36.1 to 41.2 and with the average 38.7 % that creates quite dense bunches in result. In case of weaker knotting, thin bunches will grow, for which an additional pruning of shoot tips is required for stronger knotting. 

Response of species to different environmental conditions. Among the standard grapevine varieties, Kakhuri and Khikhvi are the most vulnerable to powdery mildew. From Telavi to Akhmeta zone, Mtsvane and Khikhvi can become less damaged by the influence of downy mildew, this influence may be avoided by spraying Bordeaux mixture three-four times. Mtsvane is relatively more resistant to phylloxera, the most resistant among grapevine varieties of Kakheti, especially if cultivated and cared for properly. This grapevine variety is also quite enduring to vine worm and also to winter frosts. This characteristic was indicated in 1935 in the vineyards of Bakurtsikhe-Kardanakhi, Telav-Nasomkhari and Vazisubani, as well as on Derbenti Soviet farm Tsiteli Partizani, where Mtsvane ,after Riesling, revealed itself to be slightly stronger than Rkatsiteli, and much stronger than Saperavi and other local grapevine varieties. 

In comparison with other standard grapevine varieties of Kakheti, Mtsvane is more demanding to the environment, and needs to be cultivated and cared for more carefully. This grapevine variety provides high productivity in suitable climate and soil conditions. 

To this end, Mtsvane is cultivated massively only in certain districts (in Telavi and Sagarejo, partly – in Akhmeta and Gurjaani); in Lagodekhi and Kvareli districts it is not cultivated at all, while in Sighnaghi and Tsiteltskaro it is cultivated with very few vines. This is explained by the fact that the climate in Sagarejo, Telavi, and Akhmeta districts is mild and temperate. As was noted above, in suitable circumstances, Mtsvane receives less damage from powdery mildew, is stronger in growth and is more productive. Mtsvane should be cultivated in the mountainous, highland places of Kakhetian districts where they will experience lower damage from powdery mildew and provide higher quality wine. It is important to pay attention to careful nurture, especially to the administering of phosphorus one-two additional times. Against excessive flower-fall the pruning of young sprouts should be maintained in order to increase the productivity. 

From pruning and forming types, the Georgian guideline should be tried, known by the name Guio Form. By considering the size of the feeding area and fertility of soil, there 2-3 buds-consisting height and 10-12-buds consisting hanger should be given; while on large feeding areas, vines should be pruned by two-sided short cordon with 4 pruning rings, by leaving 30-40 buds on a vine. During the pruning, significant attention should be paid to generating additional sprouts which are most productive.

TECHNOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Mtsvane is a high quality wine grapevine variety. Among white grapevine varieties of Kakheti, Mtsvane produces the most tender and most aromatic table wine. This grapevine variety is also used for making European and Kakheti type high quality wine. Mtsvane is also used as a table grape. In the past it was used for making mixed wines together with other grapevine varieties in order to obtain more aromatic and more tender wines.

The mechanical structure of the grape. With the visual appearance of bunches, mechanical structure of grape, and chemical structure of juice, the major use of Mtsvane should be considered as wine production. Below are presented the characteristics of the mechanical structure of Mtsvane grape (see Table 4).

As Table 4 indicates, with the proportion of scion, juice, fruit, seed, and skin that constitute the entire structure of a bunch, Mtsvane is very useful for making wine.

In laboratorial conditions, Mtsvane is characterized with a desirable outlet of juice and consistency of fruit.

In industrial conditions, the outlet of juice is lower and consists of 70-72 deca-liters of wine per ton of grape. Generally, Mtsvane is characterized with a higher outley of juice than Rkatsiteli, especially when made by Kakheti guidelines.

Chemical structure of grape juice. The chemical structure of grape juice and mechanical structure of grape are the most important characteristics for defining the industrial branch of any grapevine variety, as well as for determining the wine type.

Generally, it should be noted that Mtsvane is characterized with a high ability to accumulate sugar. For example, in Telavi district, the grape of Mtsvane consists of 22 % sugar; in the southern-eastern part of Kakheti, for example on Kardanakhi Soviet farm, grapes accumulate 24% and even more sugar. Mtsvane has indicated a higher ability to accumulate sugar as much in the north-western, as in the south-eastern districts of the Soviet Union. For example, in Ukraine, in Odessa district, in certain years, grapes can accumulate 25.5%, while in Uzbekistan – 28.66% sugar. To characterize this, below is presented the distribution of sugar-acidity in Mtsvane grape (see Table 5).

As Table 5 indicates, Mtsvane is characterized with high capability of accumulating sugar in nearly all viticulture districts.

The use of grape and quality of production. Mtsvane is mostly used for making European and Kakheti type table wines. From the ancient time Mtsvane has used for making white bland wines; people used to add grape or pomace of Mtsvane to other grapevine varieties’ juice in order to obtain better quality wines, with great tenderness and aroma. The grape of Mtsvane was also used as a table grape for local use. It was also tried in the making of champagne in Kakheti (Ikalto) which appeared extra-fleshy and less sparkling, evaluated by Degustation Commission with 6.4 points and favored as champagne material. Mtsvane of Ukraine provides better material for champagne than for table wine.

Since ancient times, Mtsvane has been selected for making white table wine that is the best in Kakheti. The wine of Mtsvane made by European method (only from grape juice) is a greenish bright straw-colored, with a cheerful, tender, harmonious taste. In maturity, it develops a characteristic aroma that is distinguished with the aroma of fruit. By Kakheti method (including all constituting parts of grape) the wine is dark straw-colored, fuller and rich, with a stronger aroma and pleasant taste.

“Samtresti” produces two kinds of wines from Mtsvane, both European types. The former is known by the name “Tsinandali” and is from the Mtsvane and Rkatsiteli grape cultivated on the Soviet farms of Tsinandali, Nafareuli, and Ikalto. This is greenish-straw colored, with a clear fruity aroma, with a tender, cheerful and harmonious taste, which consists of 10.5-12% alcohol and 6-8% acidity. While the latter is known by the name “Gurjaani”, made from Mtsvane and Mukuzani which are cultivated in Manavi, Gurjaani, and Mukuzani. This wine is greenish-straw-colored, with a tender, cheerful, balanced taste; in its aroma is expressed the characteristic strong aroma of fruit.

At the end of the 19th century, according to V. Geevski and G. Shareri (11), the famous, best quality wine in Kakheti was made from Mtsvane, according to N. Cholokashvili – in Akhmeta, from the vineyards of Andronikashvili, while in Khoekheli from the vineyards of T. Andronikashvili. These wines were sold locally; a barrel cost two-four Maneti (currency of the time). In Kakheti, not only in Akhmeta and Khorkheli, but also the entire zone, from Telavi to Akhmeta, were made high quality wines both separately from Mtsvane and as a blend together with Rkatsiteli and Jananuri (Khikhvi); for example in the villages Ikalto, Ruispiri, Zemo-Khodasheni, Kistauri and so on.

On the opposite side of the river Alazani, high quality wine of Mtsvane is made in Nafareuli, Saniore, and Artana, and especially distinguished wine is made in Saniore, from the former Tizenhauzeni vineyard, that was included in the Soviet farm of Nafareuli. The famous specialist, former leading wine-maker of Samtresti, V. Kandelaki (14) always appreciated the wine of Mtsvane highly. Prof. G. Gogol-Ianovski (12) was astonished by the wine of the 1927 yield and named it Georgian Rislingi. 

On the other hand, the area where Mtsvane provides high quality table European and Kakheti wines is situated from Telavi to Mukuzani consisting of Kurdghelauri, Kondoli, Tsinandali, Vazisubani and Mukuzani, wherein is produced the famous brand wine “Tsinandali”. And in the last, the third district Manavi, where in the past even the vineyards of Kings were cultivated in order to obtain extremely high quality wines from Mtsvane. As it is nowadays too; Mtsvane provides the best quality wines in Manavi.

Mtsvane is successfully used also in blend wines in order to improve the quality of wines of other white grapevine varieties, mostly of Rkatsiteli. As much in the past as presently, Mtsvane is cultivated in non-grafted vineyards of Rkatsiteli that always include Mtsvane, Jananura (Khikhvi), Kisi, Chitistvala and others. In certain districts it is cultivated with different proportion, for example, on Ruispiri collective farm in old non-grafted vineyards it is cultivated together with Rkatsiteli and Jananuri (Khikhvi). In some vineyards Mtsvane and Jananura (Khikhvi) consist of half of Rkatsiteli; the famous “Grdzelmindori” in Tsinandali was cultivated mostly with Rkatsiteli, while Mtsvane made up of ¼ of this vineyard.

In the past pomace was also used in Mtsvane (Jorjadze, 8, Geevski and Shareri, 11) for bettering the wine of other varieties, making them more tender and aromatic.

To learn the character of Mtsvane and evaluate the quality of its wine, below are presented the characteristics of the chemical analysis from different districts of distribution.

Based on the data indicated in Table 6, the wine of Mtsvane can be characterized as rich in chemical structure, alcohol, extract and acidity; being balanced in these characteristics. The high organic capacities of Mtsvane wine should be mentioned. At the Degustation Commission meetings as much in Tbilisi as in Moscow, Mtsvane was always awarded high evaluation. Also, the wines of Mtsvane are able to become well-matured without losing their specific original aroma, but develop a specific tender and strong aroma in maturity, with a pleasant fruit aroma.

Mtsvane is rich in variations and clones; connected with its old age. There are three variations known of Mtsvane from ancient times: Kviteli or Upipko Mtsvane, Natsara Mtsvane, and Mchknara Mtsvane. Out of these variations, Kviteli Mtsvane is revealed, which can be found even nowadays in old vineyards, while Natsara and Mchknara have not yet been found. However, other variations have been revealed by the scientist of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, V. Loladze (2), such as Gadakvtulpotliani, Mtlianpotliani and Moklemtevana Mtsvane and several clones. These variations are described briefly below:

1. Kviteli Mtsvane is different from Mtsvane in the thickness of wax that gives it a yellow coloring; this variation is lower in quality of wine and productivity than usual Mtsvane. Generally, this is a less prospective variation.

2. Danakvtilpotliani Mtsvane differs from common Mtsvane by deep incisions of leaves and open incision of the petiole. This form is less productive, and as a negative variation, it should be eliminated.

3. Mtlianpotliani Mtsvane is characterized with slightly lobed or even non-lobed leaves, strong growing small bunches and low productivity, and so is not prospective in any way. 

4. Moklemtevana Mtsvane is characterized with retarded growth, with pointed teeth, late break of buds, and thin and small bunches. It is a useless, unproductive variation.

5. Kvavilmtsvivani Mtsvane differs from common Mtsvane in the structure of a flower, being characterized with bent, thin bunches, some large berries and the majority of small and undeveloped berries. This variation is useless and should be excluded from our vineyards.

6. Mtsvane No.12 – is revealed as quite a productive variation, characterized with moderately lobed leaves, secondary margins and high productivity, providing 20-25 % more grape than common Mtsvane; this is definitely a prospective variation that has successfully gone through the testing stage and presently is cultivated on collective and Soviet farms.

GENERAL EVALUATION AND DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT

Mtsvane is a high quality grapevine variety that belongs to the third period of ripening, mostly cultivated in Kakheti, providing high quality European and Kakheti type table wines. European type wine is greenish straw-colored, tender, sparkling and harmonious in taste, with purely original fruity aroma; while, when made by Kakheti method it is dark straw-colored, full, fleshy and energetic, with a harmonious pleasant taste, tender, characteristic aroma and tender fruity aroma. For the strong aroma and tenderness it is named “Georgian Rislingi” by wine-makers.

Mtsvane provides high quality wine in the districts of Telavi, Sagarejo, Akhmeta, Gurjaani, and (partly) in Sighnaghi, mostly on humus-carbonate, alluvial-carbonate and alluvial-non-carbonate soils. Distinctively high quality is the Mtsvane in Akhmeta, Manavi, Ikalto, Ruispiri, Nafareuli, Saniore, Tsinandali, Vazisubani and others. During some years, it can produce such a quality wine from these districts that it is really competitive to the famous white wines of Rein and Bordeaux.

The positive characteristics of Mtsvane include: relatively high productivity and cultivation in nearly all districts, high quality wine for different types of wine; and resistance to phylloxera and downy mildew as well as winter frosts. Also, it is notable that Mtsvane was very important for blend wines, improving the general quality of Akhmetura, Bitaani, Gorgorebi, Aleksaurebi, Grdzelmindorebi and other wines. 

The negative characteristics involve: relatively low resistance to powdery mildew and flower-fall which makes bunches thin. The first can be overcome by one-two more fungicide applications, while the second by proper pruning of sprout tips. Mtsvane is included in the valuable standard assortment of grapevine varieties of Georgia.

Mtsvane is recommended for cultivation and extended cultivation in all districts of Kakheti and in the south-eastern part of Kartli; it is desirable for cultivation on slopes, highland, and in damp areas. Outside of Georgia, Mtsvane is productive in Ukraine (Odessa district), Daghestan, and Crimea – along the mountainous sea coast. This grapevine variety is prospective for distribution in Moldava, and northern Caucasia.

Mtsvane kakhuri

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                                          MTSVANE KAKHURI 

Mtsvane is a standard grapevine variety of Kakheti, providing European and Kakheti type high quality table wine. It was named so to express the yellowish-green coloring of ripened berries. 

According to special viticulture literature and local viticulturists, this grapevine variety was known by many other names. The scholar L. Jorjadze (8) mentioned it by the names Mchknara and Safena; agr. S. Kvariani (15) differentiated the female and male Mtsvane; famous Russian researcher, Fr. Kolenati distinguished three kinds of Mtsvane: Zuanica major, Z. minory et Z. carris. In foreign ampelographies Mtsvane is shortly described and mentioned by the name Mtzvane–Mtzvani–Mzoanis (21). 

Mtsvane is a local grapevine variety, with its morphological and agricultural features being similar to the local grapevine varieties and seeming to have originated from the eco-geographical family of grapevine varieties - prol pontic, sub prol. georgica Negr. (17). 

More difficulty is connected with the issue of identifying the date of its origin as there is more material evidence available to make conclusions. However, this can be judged by some morphological characteristics. Generally, the old grapevine varieties have experienced much stronger the influence of the environment through the centuries. Based on its biological description, Mtsvane should be considered as quite an old grapevine variety. Presently, there are more than six variations and clones of Mtsvane revealed in Georgia that indicates its long age; it even seems to be older than Rkatsiteli, a fact also proved by the following author. Based on linguistic analysis, Iv. Javakhishvili considers Mtsvane as originating from the 5th and the following centuries (A.D). In the past, before the spread of fungal diseases, Mtsvane was widely cultivated in Kakheti. In the 19th century, S. Kvaruani (15) wrote: “Mtsvane is very extensively cultivated in all Kakheti, and in “Tbilisivealed” district, - in the villages across the river Ivri.” This is underlined also by V. Geevski and G. Shareri (11), who additionally state that, due to the influence of powdery mildew Mtsvane is on the border of destruction. Even though Mtsvane is the best among the white grapevine varieties of Kakheti, people tended to avoid the cultivation of Mtsvane because of sensitivity to the environment 

Within an agenda concerned with the development of viticulture and quality wine-making, this grapevine variety has been included in the industrial standard assortment of grapevine varieties of Kakheti, since 1936, and is planned for wide cultivation and re-cultivation in large areas. 

Nowadays, Mtsvane is cultivated in Eastern Georgia, mostly in Kakheti (96%), from which, 83% has been dedicated in two districts (of Kacheti in Telavi and Sagarejo), while the remaining 17% of Mtsvane vineyards are situated in the other five districts. Based on 1953 descriptive data of vineyards, Mtsvane was dedicated 1.184 hectares in Georgia; the scope being cultivated in the following way: in Kakheti – 1039 hectares- that is 6.7% of the entire land-scope, in lower Kartli – 15 ha (0.6%), in central Kartli – 62 ha (1.0%) and in Western Georgia, totally, - 68 ha. Therefore, in 1953, 1184 ha i.e. 2.5% of the whole land-scope of vineyards was dedicated to Mtsvane. 

In Georgia, Mtsvane is cultivated separately from other varieties on 1054 hectares; in Kakheti, it has dedicated 1039 ha- 6.7% of the entire vineyard scope. In Western Georgia, Mtsvane is not cultivated, only in collective and testing vineyards can it be found. Outside of Georgia, Mtsvane can be found in testing vineyards, as for example in the central Asian republics, in Ukraine, Crimea, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Daghestan (on the soviet farm Tsiteli Partizani at 1.8 hectares). Relatively limited distribution of Mtsvane as much in Georgia as outside of it can be explained by its low resistance to powdery mildew, sensitivity to soils and climate conditions, sometimes caused by the underestimation of its values due to lack of knowledge. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 

Mtsvane was described in the village of Vazisubani, in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology that is cultivated on the slight slope of the Tsiv-Gombori Mountain, at 565m above sea level, formed by stake-wire, by cordon. 

The young shoot. The young (15-20cm long) shoot with its tip, crown, and two almost closed leaves is covered with thick felt-like coating, is white and has a slightly pinkish circle around the crown and across the petiole. The leaves of the second row on the topside are coated with quite thick web-like down, are yellowish-green, while on the downside are covered with thick felt-like coating and is pinkish-gray-white. 

The one year sprout. The one year sprout is grayish yellow-colored in autumn, while to the side of sun is grayish. The axils are distanced by 6 - 10 cm, often 8cm, from each other. 

The leaf. The leaves of the middle row are moderate in size (18- 18.5cm) and dark green. The leaf is rounded, rarely can be slightly oval; its surface is wrinkled like a net, rarely consists of blisters; more often, the leaf is five-lobed, rarely –three. The blade of a leaf is not straight- it is similar to a funnel or bent. 

The upper incisions are varied as in depth as in shape, mostly can meet quite deep or extremely cut incisions; with a closed shape, with an egg-like eye, or having either rounded or sharp basis, rarely being similar to a lyre, with parallel sides and sharp basis, which can be rarely cut angular or can have one tooth. 

The incision of the petiole can be closed as well as opened like an arch; often being closed elliptical or lyre-like. 

The major veins of the leaf end with right triangular sharpened teeth, rarely can meet convex-sided teeth. The lateral teeth are triangular or like saw teeth, with convex sides and sharpened tip.

The leaf on the underside is coated like a web, on the downside is covered with quite thick rough coating that becomes intensive from the down to the topside. The coating of leaves of the below row are coated more thickly. 

The petiole of the leaf is uncoated, rarely can notice thin web-like hairs. The petiole is equal to the major vein or slightly shorter. The petiole is bright wine-colored with greenish lines.

The flower. The flower is hermaphroditic and well-structured. The stamens are upright standing; there are five, rarely six stamens in a flower. The proportion of the stamen’s length to the height of a pistil equals 1.25 or 1.5. The pistil is roundish cone-shaped, with well-depicted column and two-lobed nose.

The bunch. The bunch of Mtsvane is middle-sized, about 12-17cm long and 9-15cm wide. The size of an average bunch is 14 x 10.5cm. The bunch is wide cone-shaped, having a shoulder that can be half or 2/3 of bunch’s length. Bunches are generally quite dense, or can rarely be thin. The average weight of a bunch is 165-170g; there are about 118 berries on a bunch, more than the half of them are large, while the remaining moderate or small. The pedicel of a bunch is 3.5 - 6.0cm long and 4.5cm wide; this is grass-like, green, to the basis becoming woody; the bunch is easy to pick. The receptacle is rough and wide cone-shaped; berries are quite firmly attached to it. 

The berry. The majority of berries are middle-sized, about 1.35 - 3.8cm long and 1.2 - 1.6cm wide, with the average size being 1.45 x 1.25. The berry is oval, wider in the middle part with a rounded end; the skin is thin, easily separable from the flesh that is melt-able and with clear juice. The berry is yellowish-green, covered with waxy spots that give a tender greenish coloring. The juice is sweet and pleasant, with a very tender original aroma.

The seed. There are 1-4 seeds in a berry. 100 berries of Mtsvane consist of 6% one-seeded berries, 64% - two-seeded, 26% - three-seeded and 4% - four-seeded. The seed is 6 - 7mm long and 4 - 4.3mm wide, while the beak is 2.0 - 2.5mm long. The seed is roundish-oval, and brownish-yellow. The basis is placed in the upper area or a seed; this is roundish and concaved to the inside that is rocky. The channels on the inside are deep and parallel; divide the body of a seed into two; its basis is yellow, slightly widen – to the topside of the beak. The beak is bright-brown on the topside, while on the downside – yellowish-orange. 

AGRO-BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Vegetative period and course of its phases. Observations of the vegetation period and course of its phases were conducted in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology. To characterize the course of vegetative phases, below are presented the findings of observations provided in Kakheti, Ukraine, central Asia and Dagestan (see Table 1).

As Table 1 indicates, the vegetation periods in these four zones vary significantly from each other. Between Telavi and Odessa, this difference equals one week, while between Telavi and Derbenti – 16 days. This is caused by the fact that, in relation to Dorbenti, is shown the physiological ripening that arrives 10-12 days earlier than the full ripening. Relatively less variable is the sum of active temperatures that in Telavi equals 3.199o, in Odessa – 3.170o, while in Derbenti – 3.019o. Mtsvane arrives to ripening the earliest (on 26 August) in central Asia (Tashkent), then in Daghestan and Telavi, the latest – in Odessa. Therefore, the sum of active temperatures can be successfully taken into account as one of the basic indicators before introducing this grapevine variety to any district.

The sprout in Kakheti arrives to ripening quite successfully, as this area is characterized with a high sum of active temperatures and consequently the vegetation period is long. However, in relatively cooler districts, for example in Ukraine (Odessa district) where leaf-fall does not occur naturally, the vegetation period can be interrupted by the beginning of autumn frosts. Based on the observation by E. Komarova (16) the sprouts of Mtsvane can successfully ripen in Odessa as well as in Derbenti during the 183 vegetation period, characterizing the sum of temperatures as 3.754o. 

In comparison with other local grapevine varieties, Mtsvane is characterized with moderate growth, as it is in Ukraine and Daghestan. In central Asian republics, namely in Uzbekistan, on a 5m2 feeding area, Mtsvane is characterized with strong growth, however on the same sized feeding area, its growth remains moderate in comparison with other grapevine varieties. 

The productivity. Like the majority of grapevine varieties of Kakheti, Mtsvane is early harvesting, providing its first yield from the second year, while from the following year becoming completely productive. This is characteristic for this grapevine variety in other viticulture districts also. For example, in Uzbekistan, from the second year 212 bunches developed on 157 sprouts, or 1.35 bunches on a sprout; while the full productivity of Mtsvane, in the same place was 740 bunches on 475 sprouts, or 1.55 bunches on a sprout. In Ukraine, according to E. Komarova (16), Mtsvane provides the first signs of harvesting from the third year; as it does in Derbent, according to M. Peiteli, where first signs of productivity appear from the third or fourth years. Generally, proper care and nurturing makes the first signs of productivity arrive earlier. 

The grapevine variety Mtsvane is characterized with relatively high productivity and high quality; based on long observations, Mtsvane in its productivity, is compatible with Rkatsiteli and Saperavi. 

Since the spread of fungal diseases, the distribution of Mtsvane has been limited; this indicates that Mtsvane is very vulnerable to powdery mildew and sensitive to the environment. However, by applying advanced agro-techniques, Mtsvane can maintain as high productivity and quality production as Rkatsiteli. For example, on the soviet farm of Nafareuli, in Saniore vineyard at 6 hectares land scope. Mtsvane was always more productive annually than Rkatsiteli and provided very high quality wine. The characteristics of the productivity of Mtsvane are presented below (see Table 2).

Based on the given data it can be said that Mtsvane is characterized with quite high productivity annually. This grapevine variety is high productive in Mukuzani, providing 35.6 - 52.6 centners per hectare, in Manavi – 46.4-55.9 centners (while in 1948 – 66 centners) and is characterized with higher than moderate productivity – 56.2-114 centners per hectare – in Kulari, Gurjaani, and on Khirsi Soviet farm; as for example, in Derbent, according to M. Peiteli, the productivity of Mtsvane in the testing vineyard varied from 39.24 to 92.8 centners, with 3-year mean of 59.57 centners; in the collective vineyard it consisted of 126.4 centners; on the Soviet farm Tsiteli Partizani, in 1947 –92 centners were obtained, in 1948 – 102 centners and in 1949 – 168 centners of grape per hectare; in Odessa, in the testing vineyard - 60-70 centners, while in Uzbekistan (Tarnaushi) 170 centners of grape per hectare.

For more precise characterization of the productivity, extensive analyses were conducted focusing on the number of sprouts, bunches, productive shoots and average weight of a bunch. Based on this data, the number of productive shoots varied from 61.8% (in Odessa) to 80% (in Derbenti), while in Telavi – 75%. The coefficient of productivity varied from 1.24 (in Derbenti) to 1.4 (Odessa), in Telavi – equaled 1.30. The average weight of a bunch varied from 137g (in Odessa) to 172 g (Telavi). The productivity per hectare varied from 60.7 centners (in Ukraine) to 124. 4 centners (Derbenti), while in Telavi – 74. 4 centners, which is close to the average productivity of the Soviet farm.

Mtsvane is characterized with excessive flower-fall. This phenomenon was explored in the village of Vazisubani that represents the testing station of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology. The vines for this investigation were selected in the collective vineyard that was cultivated in 1926, formed by stake-wire-consisting cordon on a 2.15m2 feeding area. Vines are grafted on Riparia X Berlandieri N420a. The revealed findings are presented in Table 3.

As Table 3 indicates, the percentage of knotting of berries varies from 36.1 to 41.2 and with the average 38.7 % that creates quite dense bunches in result. In case of weaker knotting, thin bunches will grow, for which an additional pruning of shoot tips is required for stronger knotting. 

Response of species to different environmental conditions. Among the standard grapevine varieties, Kakhuri and Khikhvi are the most vulnerable to powdery mildew. From Telavi to Akhmeta zone, Mtsvane and Khikhvi can become less damaged by the influence of downy mildew, this influence may be avoided by spraying Bordeaux mixture three-four times. Mtsvane is relatively more resistant to phylloxera, the most resistant among grapevine varieties of Kakheti, especially if cultivated and cared for properly. This grapevine variety is also quite enduring to vine worm and also to winter frosts. This characteristic was indicated in 1935 in the vineyards of Bakurtsikhe-Kardanakhi, Telav-Nasomkhari and Vazisubani, as well as on Derbenti Soviet farm Tsiteli Partizani, where Mtsvane ,after Riesling, revealed itself to be slightly stronger than Rkatsiteli, and much stronger than Saperavi and other local grapevine varieties. 

In comparison with other standard grapevine varieties of Kakheti, Mtsvane is more demanding to the environment, and needs to be cultivated and cared for more carefully. This grapevine variety provides high productivity in suitable climate and soil conditions. 

To this end, Mtsvane is cultivated massively only in certain districts (in Telavi and Sagarejo, partly – in Akhmeta and Gurjaani); in Lagodekhi and Kvareli districts it is not cultivated at all, while in Sighnaghi and Tsiteltskaro it is cultivated with very few vines. This is explained by the fact that the climate in Sagarejo, Telavi, and Akhmeta districts is mild and temperate. As was noted above, in suitable circumstances, Mtsvane receives less damage from powdery mildew, is stronger in growth and is more productive. Mtsvane should be cultivated in the mountainous, highland places of Kakhetian districts where they will experience lower damage from powdery mildew and provide higher quality wine. It is important to pay attention to careful nurture, especially to the administering of phosphorus one-two additional times. Against excessive flower-fall the pruning of young sprouts should be maintained in order to increase the productivity. 

From pruning and forming types, the Georgian guideline should be tried, known by the name Guio Form. By considering the size of the feeding area and fertility of soil, there 2-3 buds-consisting height and 10-12-buds consisting hanger should be given; while on large feeding areas, vines should be pruned by two-sided short cordon with 4 pruning rings, by leaving 30-40 buds on a vine. During the pruning, significant attention should be paid to generating additional sprouts which are most productive.

TECHNOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Mtsvane is a high quality wine grapevine variety. Among white grapevine varieties of Kakheti, Mtsvane produces the most tender and most aromatic table wine. This grapevine variety is also used for making European and Kakheti type high quality wine. Mtsvane is also used as a table grape. In the past it was used for making mixed wines together with other grapevine varieties in order to obtain more aromatic and more tender wines.

The mechanical structure of the grape. With the visual appearance of bunches, mechanical structure of grape, and chemical structure of juice, the major use of Mtsvane should be considered as wine production. Below are presented the characteristics of the mechanical structure of Mtsvane grape (see Table 4).

As Table 4 indicates, with the proportion of scion, juice, fruit, seed, and skin that constitute the entire structure of a bunch, Mtsvane is very useful for making wine.

In laboratorial conditions, Mtsvane is characterized with a desirable outlet of juice and consistency of fruit.

In industrial conditions, the outlet of juice is lower and consists of 70-72 deca-liters of wine per ton of grape. Generally, Mtsvane is characterized with a higher outley of juice than Rkatsiteli, especially when made by Kakheti guidelines.

Chemical structure of grape juice. The chemical structure of grape juice and mechanical structure of grape are the most important characteristics for defining the industrial branch of any grapevine variety, as well as for determining the wine type.

Generally, it should be noted that Mtsvane is characterized with a high ability to accumulate sugar. For example, in Telavi district, the grape of Mtsvane consists of 22 % sugar; in the southern-eastern part of Kakheti, for example on Kardanakhi Soviet farm, grapes accumulate 24% and even more sugar. Mtsvane has indicated a higher ability to accumulate sugar as much in the north-western, as in the south-eastern districts of the Soviet Union. For example, in Ukraine, in Odessa district, in certain years, grapes can accumulate 25.5%, while in Uzbekistan – 28.66% sugar. To characterize this, below is presented the distribution of sugar-acidity in Mtsvane grape (see Table 5).

As Table 5 indicates, Mtsvane is characterized with high capability of accumulating sugar in nearly all viticulture districts.

The use of grape and quality of production. Mtsvane is mostly used for making European and Kakheti type table wines. From the ancient time Mtsvane has used for making white bland wines; people used to add grape or pomace of Mtsvane to other grapevine varieties’ juice in order to obtain better quality wines, with great tenderness and aroma. The grape of Mtsvane was also used as a table grape for local use. It was also tried in the making of champagne in Kakheti (Ikalto) which appeared extra-fleshy and less sparkling, evaluated by Degustation Commission with 6.4 points and favored as champagne material. Mtsvane of Ukraine provides better material for champagne than for table wine.

Since ancient times, Mtsvane has been selected for making white table wine that is the best in Kakheti. The wine of Mtsvane made by European method (only from grape juice) is a greenish bright straw-colored, with a cheerful, tender, harmonious taste. In maturity, it develops a characteristic aroma that is distinguished with the aroma of fruit. By Kakheti method (including all constituting parts of grape) the wine is dark straw-colored, fuller and rich, with a stronger aroma and pleasant taste.

“Samtresti” produces two kinds of wines from Mtsvane, both European types. The former is known by the name “Tsinandali” and is from the Mtsvane and Rkatsiteli grape cultivated on the Soviet farms of Tsinandali, Nafareuli, and Ikalto. This is greenish-straw colored, with a clear fruity aroma, with a tender, cheerful and harmonious taste, which consists of 10.5-12% alcohol and 6-8% acidity. While the latter is known by the name “Gurjaani”, made from Mtsvane and Mukuzani which are cultivated in Manavi, Gurjaani, and Mukuzani. This wine is greenish-straw-colored, with a tender, cheerful, balanced taste; in its aroma is expressed the characteristic strong aroma of fruit.

At the end of the 19th century, according to V. Geevski and G. Shareri (11), the famous, best quality wine in Kakheti was made from Mtsvane, according to N. Cholokashvili – in Akhmeta, from the vineyards of Andronikashvili, while in Khoekheli from the vineyards of T. Andronikashvili. These wines were sold locally; a barrel cost two-four Maneti (currency of the time). In Kakheti, not only in Akhmeta and Khorkheli, but also the entire zone, from Telavi to Akhmeta, were made high quality wines both separately from Mtsvane and as a blend together with Rkatsiteli and Jananuri (Khikhvi); for example in the villages Ikalto, Ruispiri, Zemo-Khodasheni, Kistauri and so on.

On the opposite side of the river Alazani, high quality wine of Mtsvane is made in Nafareuli, Saniore, and Artana, and especially distinguished wine is made in Saniore, from the former Tizenhauzeni vineyard, that was included in the Soviet farm of Nafareuli. The famous specialist, former leading wine-maker of Samtresti, V. Kandelaki (14) always appreciated the wine of Mtsvane highly. Prof. G. Gogol-Ianovski (12) was astonished by the wine of the 1927 yield and named it Georgian Rislingi. 

On the other hand, the area where Mtsvane provides high quality table European and Kakheti wines is situated from Telavi to Mukuzani consisting of Kurdghelauri, Kondoli, Tsinandali, Vazisubani and Mukuzani, wherein is produced the famous brand wine “Tsinandali”. And in the last, the third district Manavi, where in the past even the vineyards of Kings were cultivated in order to obtain extremely high quality wines from Mtsvane. As it is nowadays too; Mtsvane provides the best quality wines in Manavi.

Mtsvane is successfully used also in blend wines in order to improve the quality of wines of other white grapevine varieties, mostly of Rkatsiteli. As much in the past as presently, Mtsvane is cultivated in non-grafted vineyards of Rkatsiteli that always include Mtsvane, Jananura (Khikhvi), Kisi, Chitistvala and others. In certain districts it is cultivated with different proportion, for example, on Ruispiri collective farm in old non-grafted vineyards it is cultivated together with Rkatsiteli and Jananuri (Khikhvi). In some vineyards Mtsvane and Jananura (Khikhvi) consist of half of Rkatsiteli; the famous “Grdzelmindori” in Tsinandali was cultivated mostly with Rkatsiteli, while Mtsvane made up of ¼ of this vineyard.

In the past pomace was also used in Mtsvane (Jorjadze, 8, Geevski and Shareri, 11) for bettering the wine of other varieties, making them more tender and aromatic.

To learn the character of Mtsvane and evaluate the quality of its wine, below are presented the characteristics of the chemical analysis from different districts of distribution.

Based on the data indicated in Table 6, the wine of Mtsvane can be characterized as rich in chemical structure, alcohol, extract and acidity; being balanced in these characteristics. The high organic capacities of Mtsvane wine should be mentioned. At the Degustation Commission meetings as much in Tbilisi as in Moscow, Mtsvane was always awarded high evaluation. Also, the wines of Mtsvane are able to become well-matured without losing their specific original aroma, but develop a specific tender and strong aroma in maturity, with a pleasant fruit aroma.

Mtsvane is rich in variations and clones; connected with its old age. There are three variations known of Mtsvane from ancient times: Kviteli or Upipko Mtsvane, Natsara Mtsvane, and Mchknara Mtsvane. Out of these variations, Kviteli Mtsvane is revealed, which can be found even nowadays in old vineyards, while Natsara and Mchknara have not yet been found. However, other variations have been revealed by the scientist of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, V. Loladze (2), such as Gadakvtulpotliani, Mtlianpotliani and Moklemtevana Mtsvane and several clones. These variations are described briefly below:

1. Kviteli Mtsvane is different from Mtsvane in the thickness of wax that gives it a yellow coloring; this variation is lower in quality of wine and productivity than usual Mtsvane. Generally, this is a less prospective variation.

2. Danakvtilpotliani Mtsvane differs from common Mtsvane by deep incisions of leaves and open incision of the petiole. This form is less productive, and as a negative variation, it should be eliminated.

3. Mtlianpotliani Mtsvane is characterized with slightly lobed or even non-lobed leaves, strong growing small bunches and low productivity, and so is not prospective in any way. 

4. Moklemtevana Mtsvane is characterized with retarded growth, with pointed teeth, late break of buds, and thin and small bunches. It is a useless, unproductive variation.

5. Kvavilmtsvivani Mtsvane differs from common Mtsvane in the structure of a flower, being characterized with bent, thin bunches, some large berries and the majority of small and undeveloped berries. This variation is useless and should be excluded from our vineyards.

6. Mtsvane No.12 – is revealed as quite a productive variation, characterized with moderately lobed leaves, secondary margins and high productivity, providing 20-25 % more grape than common Mtsvane; this is definitely a prospective variation that has successfully gone through the testing stage and presently is cultivated on collective and Soviet farms.

GENERAL EVALUATION AND DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT

Mtsvane is a high quality grapevine variety that belongs to the third period of ripening, mostly cultivated in Kakheti, providing high quality European and Kakheti type table wines. European type wine is greenish straw-colored, tender, sparkling and harmonious in taste, with purely original fruity aroma; while, when made by Kakheti method it is dark straw-colored, full, fleshy and energetic, with a harmonious pleasant taste, tender, characteristic aroma and tender fruity aroma. For the strong aroma and tenderness it is named “Georgian Rislingi” by wine-makers.

Mtsvane provides high quality wine in the districts of Telavi, Sagarejo, Akhmeta, Gurjaani, and (partly) in Sighnaghi, mostly on humus-carbonate, alluvial-carbonate and alluvial-non-carbonate soils. Distinctively high quality is the Mtsvane in Akhmeta, Manavi, Ikalto, Ruispiri, Nafareuli, Saniore, Tsinandali, Vazisubani and others. During some years, it can produce such a quality wine from these districts that it is really competitive to the famous white wines of Rein and Bordeaux.

The positive characteristics of Mtsvane include: relatively high productivity and cultivation in nearly all districts, high quality wine for different types of wine; and resistance to phylloxera and downy mildew as well as winter frosts. Also, it is notable that Mtsvane was very important for blend wines, improving the general quality of Akhmetura, Bitaani, Gorgorebi, Aleksaurebi, Grdzelmindorebi and other wines. 

The negative characteristics involve: relatively low resistance to powdery mildew and flower-fall which makes bunches thin. The first can be overcome by one-two more fungicide applications, while the second by proper pruning of sprout tips. Mtsvane is included in the valuable standard assortment of grapevine varieties of Georgia.

Mtsvane is recommended for cultivation and extended cultivation in all districts of Kakheti and in the south-eastern part of Kartli; it is desirable for cultivation on slopes, highland, and in damp areas. Outside of Georgia, Mtsvane is productive in Ukraine (Odessa district), Daghestan, and Crimea – along the mountainous sea coast. This grapevine variety is prospective for distribution in Moldava, and northern Caucasia.

Wines made from the same variety